Toddler Growth and Development

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Growth and Development
Robin Harmon 10/11/2009

Adolescent
Physical Development:
Height/Weight:
Age Physical Growth
12 to 18Variation in age of growth spurt, girls gain 15 to 55 pounds and grow 2 to 8 inches;
boys gain approximately 15 to 65 pounds and grow 4.5 to 12 inches

Normal Adolescent Physical Growth Patterns:
AgeHeight FemalesHeight MalesWeight FemalesWeight Males 1255-64 in54-63.5 in68 -136 lb66- 130 lb
1459-67.5 in59-69.5 in84 - 160 lb84 - 160 lb
1660-68 in63- 73 in94 - 172 lb104 - 186 lb
1860 - 68.5 in65 - 74 in100 - 178 lb116 - 202 lb
Adolescence is the second fastest growth period. It is the first stage in which patterns differ gender. Both height and weight increase earlier in females than in males, but gains in both measurement are ultimately greater in males than in females. As mentioned females usually start to mature earlier than males. At puberty, increases in four primary sex hormones cause physical changes in girls. These hormones are follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estrogen, and progesterone. There is an increase in the rate of skeletal growth, a widening of the pelvis, and a change in fat distribution. Breast tissue begins to develop, and coarse hair forms under the arms and over the mons pubis. At about 13 years females experience menarche, the beginning of the menstrual cycle. Menarche can begin as early as age 8 and as late as age 16. A few months later ovulation begins. These changes take several years to complete. The female usually reaches full physical maturation by age 16, but it might be as late as 18 years of age. Sexual maturity can be documented in stages (called Tanner's stages). Male development usually begins 2 years later than female development. Changes in hormones guide physical changes in males as in females. FSH and LH trigger the increase of testosterone. There is a rapid growth with an increase in height, lengthening of the jaw, and a doubling of muscle mass. The penis and testicles mature, and coarse hair forms on the face, axillae, and pubis. The voice deepens. Ejaculation signals the beginning of spermatogenesis. Although these changes are usually apparent by age 16 the male may not reasch his adult hight until 19 to 21 years of age.

Vital Signs:
Temperature (oral):98.6 Fahrenheit
Pulse:70 (50 to 90)
Respirations:18 (15 to 20)
Blood Pressure:120/80 mmHg

Motor Development:
Fine Motor Skills: Skills are well developed
Gross Motor Skills: New sports activities attempted and muscle development continues. Some lack of coordination common during growth spurts Psychosocial Development:

Erickson's Stages of Development:
The 5th stage is adolescence. This stage, ages 12 to 20 years of age , is the time of identity versus role confusion. Teenagers are developing their sexual identity becoming more independent and beginning the process of separation from their parents. Teenagers have a strong desire to make their own decisions and "live their own life", but at the same time they have a real need to know the boundaries or rules. Teenagers are examining the world and trying to decide where they fit, what their life's work will be, and how they can accomplish their goals. They are beginning to use peers for support instead of relying on parents for help in making decisions. With positive reinforcement of their progress, they can develop a strong identity. However with continual negative feedback, coupled with feelings of inferiority and guilt, they become confused, ambivalent, and withdrawn. If the parents do not allow them to separate from their influence, develop peer relationships, and make their own decisions, they will remain dependent because they have not developed a clear identity. Cognitive Development/Communication:

Although emotional and physical maturity is usually reached sooner in females, cognitive development progresses equally....
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