To what extent is Asia Pacific a region of great variety? Give relevant examples. Introduction
Countries in the same region not necessary have to be identical in everything. To illustrate this, there are many countries located in the Asia Pacific region, but all of them are different in many ways, not just in people, culture, geography, but also in the development. Therefore, it has a contrast in their way of managing business. There are many factors that contributed to Asia Pacific to be called a region of great variety. The following will only be discussing the variety in their business system, culture, economic development and language among the countries in Asia Pacific region because they are four important factors that may hinder the process of management which can have direct impact on business performance. Business system
Every country developed different business systems, which each of them display unique characteristics. Even though some countries may adopt different business system, they can be equally successful in the business market. For example, When the overseas Chinese business enterprise take some of the trappings of a modern corporation, like recruiting professional managers and public ownership, still the most desirable assets are kept in a maze of private businesses and trusts controlled by the family itself (Weidenbaum 1996, 143). Similarly, history of the Korean businesses shows that many of the corporation is still owned by the family member. According to Yoo and Lee (1987, 98), Korean has a unique structure in their ownership as most Korean Chaebol hire one of the three groups of people, which are sole possession by the owner, domination by the core family and mutual possession. All of these groups are related to the founders’ family or relatives. In contrast, Japanese Kaisha does not exhibit personal ownership. As mentioned by Clegg, Redding and Cartner (1990. 93), “Japanese keiretsu and Kaisha exemplify high degrees of delegation of strategic and operational control from property rights holders and considerable interdependence between members of business groups and between core enterprises and major subcontractors”. This argument can be supported by Whitley (1991, 3) which said Chinese family business and Korean chaebol are more closely related with personal ownership as compared to Japanese Kaisha where managerial control for the separated ownership. Since countries in the same region may not adopt same business system. However, having different business system does not mean failure in their business. As a matter of fact, China, Korea, and Japan are successful. It is important for an entrepreneur who intended to do business overseas to study each county individually in order to have a better understanding how the business works in the respective country. Through understanding the way the corporate works, better management skills can be achieve to reach desirable goals. Culture
Adler, Doktor and Redding (1986, 298) defined culture as “that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, customs and any capabilities and habits acquired by a man as a member of society”. Living in different countries develop different cultural believe which makes each of the country has a unique cultural characteristics. Professor Geert Hofstede has conducted a study on how values in culture can highly influence the values in workplace. Below shows different graph that study each of the countries in Asia Pacific region respectively, which are collected from the National Culture (2012).
According to Hofstede (2007, 417), power distance (PDI) study the extent of inequality in a society, which means how those less powerful people have to admit the power is distributed unequally while individualism (IDV) study the degree of which the ties between individuals are loose in a society. Furthermore, masculinity (MAS) study which gender roles is the focus of power, uncertainty avoidance (UAI)...
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