To what extent has the concept of universalization of Western liberal democracy has been the case since the end of the Cold War?
The main purpose of this essay is to get an understanding if liberal democracy is the ultimate form of government of humankind based on the theory of Francis Fukuyama, expressed in his article “The End of History?” (1989) and extended in his book “The End of History and the Last Man” (1992). Based on that in such environment mayor war conflicts do not exist and all the advantages of human modernization benefits society. This, I will try to achieve by giving a short analysis of Fukuyama’s thesis and relate that to developments and conflicts. In order to answer the main question, I have added a sub question:
What is Fukuyama’s theory and on what grounds does he bases his hypothesis?
Fukuyama’s theory is the liberal democracy form of government of Western countries, that marks the end of sociocultural evolution and may be the final form of human government.
He bases his theory on the components of 1) political, 2) empirical and 3) philosophical arguments.
The political argument: All wars through history are clashes between two competing political systems. As more nations adopt liberal democracy as their form of government, wars between them will not occur.
The empirical argument: since the beginning of the 19th Century, there has been a move for states to adopt some form of liberal democracy as its government, defined as a government where individual rights, such as the right to free speech, are superior to the rights of the state.
Fukuyama examines the influence of thymos (or human spiritedness). Enlightened rational thought shows that the roles of master and slave are unsatisfying and self-defeating and hence not adopted by lofty spirits.
To what extent... [continues]
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