A welfare state is a concept of government where the state plays the primary role in the protection and promotion of the economic and social well-being of its citizens. It is based on the principles of equality of opportunity, equitable distribution of wealth, and public responsibility for those unable to avail themselves of the minimal provisions for a good life. The general term may cover a variety of forms of economic and social organization. There are two main interpretations of the idea of a welfare state: ●A model in which the state assumes primary responsibility for the welfare of its citizens. This responsibility in theory ought to be comprehensive, because all aspects of welfare are considered and universally applied to citizens as a "right". ●Welfare state can also mean the creation of a "social safety net" of minimum standards of varying forms of welfare. 【Explanatory Notes】
^  Encyclopædia Britannica
A Brief History of the British Welfare State
The primary idea underlying the platform of the British Labour Party was the rather obvious idea that it was part of the government's responsibility to help find solutions to the major social problems facing its citizens. The questions surrounding the possibility of successful Implementation of these solutions at been at the core of the the contention that existed between the opposing political ideologies. The onslaught of German aggression in World War II forced Britain into a situation where it no longer had any choice but to give in to ideological pressures and put them into practice. By the conclusion of the war pretty much all doubt had evaporated in the clouds of bombs as to whether a welfare state policy was practical. Upon the somewhat surprising sweep by the Labour Party into the halls of power in 1945, the United Kingdom underwent a wholesale change in ideology. The Labour Party wasted precious little time in mandating a series of programs aimed directly...