In 1848, the pope left Rome in hope of finding salvation Naples, His absence allowed Mazzini to set up his government, in which he announced a number of reformations, He fixed the taxing system, unpopular with the public and introduced a constituent. It announced the end to the pope’s reign over Rome and the beginnings of the republic, with Mazzini as the head of the triumvirate as the fair ruler and was the best leader Rome had had in years. Whilst Mazzini was setting up his city, other events were taking place just as radical as in Rome. Much to the despair of the citizens of Rome, Thr pope, appealed to Naples, France, spain for aid in the removal of Mazzini and his republic. The defence was hopeless against the French army and Mazzini’s hope of liberating Rome was crushed along with his republic, after a few short months of peace in Rome..Charles Albert launched a campaign against Austrian rule in Italy. His unsuccessful attempt at besting the Austrians ended in a humiliating defeat in Novara.Although a provisional government was set up in Lombardy. This allowed the Austrians to put down all attempsts at Revolution. Independence was a lost cause and a unrealistic dream for the the incompetent leaders. With Rome’s Return to absolute rule for the pope in Rome and the rest of the states.
If unification was to take place, they needed foreign aid, strong leadership and clever tactics to achieve their dreams.