To What Extent Can an Olympic Host City Benefits from the Olympic Games

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To what extent can an Olympic host city benefits from the Olympic Games

1 Introduction
According to the Cambridge dictionary (2012), the Olympic Games is a set of international sports competitions that happen once every four years. The first Olympic Games were held in Greece in 1896 and the Olympic Games have been held 29 times so far. Many countries try their best to hold this large event which have world influence, due to the fact that it brings some impacts to the host city in term of economy, environment and so on. In this report, the effect of the Olympic Games and evaluate to what extent can the host obtain the benefits will be explored. In my opinion, most Olympic Games have a temporary function to the economy of a host country, few of the hosts can gain the long-term benefit. The Olympic Games benefit the economy of a country from tourism、job opportunities、urban development aspect and so on. The purpose of this paper is to explore the benefits which the Olympic Games bring to a host country and estimate whether the positive effect outweigh the negative effect. This paper has been divided into three sections. First of all, the general impacts that Olympic Games bring to a host city will be introduced. Then the main research will focus on some examples of the Olympic Games in last 20 years, especially on Beijing Olympic Games. Finally, the principle points will be drew in the conclusions.

2 Literature Review
In this section, the review will be divided into two parts. First of all, the perception of International event tourism will be given, after that, the effect of Olympic Games will be described.

2.1 International event tourism
With the development of communication between countries, it is more easier to travel to other countries. Tourism plays an increasingly role in developing the economy of a country. Lew (2011) says that tourism is certainly a huge and important economic activity. Nowadays, many international events were held in the world, like the FIFA World Cup, Olympic Games, UEFA-EURO and so on. A case study about impact of the 2002 FIFA World Cup by Lee indicates that World Cup tourists were more likely to recommend their family or friends interested in traveling overseas and say positive things about Korea to other people. These events create considerable opportunities to travel in the host cities. As Ahlert (2006) states that mega sport events, like the Olympic Games and the FIFA World Cup, are the most important international tourism events. These activities have many impacts to a host city. “The latter impacts are said to benefit local citizenry through better global profile, post-event increases in tourism an levels of attractiveness to businesses” (Lee, 2002). 2.2 The effect of Olympic Games

2.2.1 The economic effect of Olympic Games
It may attract considerable number of tourists to visit the host city when a city hold an Olympic Games. This phenomenon is called Olympic tourism. According to Weed (2008), the definition of Olympic tourism is that tourism behavior motivated or generated by Olympic related activities. The Olympic tourism not only have short-term effect, but also have long-term influence. Chalkley (1999) claims that the attraction of a substantial number of visitors can bring at least short-term benefits to the city’s economy and this sporting events can also result in more lasting benefits including new facilities, new buildings and a range of wider infrastructional developments. Kontokosta (2011) adds that the Olympic Games have come to be viewed as an unprecedented opportunity to leverage a short-term event into a long-term positive legacy. Tourism can affect the economic impact of Olympic Games, and according to Preuss (2004), the economic impact of the Games is very dependent on the number of foreign tourists because they bring fresh money into the city and region. Some studies have demonstrated that the Olympic Games have effect on residential real estate. Kontokosta...
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