Syntactical EMs and SDs in “To Kill A Mockingbird”
The syntactical EMs and SDs used in the extract are determined by the situation of the lawyer’s discourse. Dwelling on the general character of sentences we must mention that they are mostly long composite sentences with a number of attributive clauses. The sentences are coordinated by various conjunctions and relative pronouns (which we know is in itself a lie) called “signals of sequence”. On the syntactical level the author uses such EMs as emphatic constructions It does require you to be sure… and “It was … that …” aimed at producing a special effect on the reader. The syntactical SDs are vastly used by the author. Rhetorical questions (What was the evidence of the offence?) aim at involving the reader into the trial. The usage of syntactical parallelism is dictated by the author’s desire to lay greater emphasis on important statements (some people are smarter that others, some people have more opportunity). These are cases of anaphora (she persisted in breaking it. She persisted...) and anadiplosis (she has broken a code of our society, a code so severe that…). The author sometimes contrasts two ideas to create a richer expression or effect (which in itself is a lie; a lie I don’t have to point out…). That’s how he uses antithesis (all Negroes lie, all Negroes are immoral… Which, gentleman, we know is in itself a lie. and the truth is this: some Negroes lie, some Negroes are immoral). Here we see the opposition of such words as all – some and truth – lie. In addition to that there is a phenomenon of climax (This case is not a difficult one; this case should never have come to trial).
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