TO EXOPLORE THE UK HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE SYSTEM AND TO CRITICALLY ANALYSE POLICY/STANDARDS IN RELATION TO PRACITCE.
The UK health and social care system provides free medical and surgical treatment to all citizens and long term registered residents, through the National Health Services (NHS) and Department of Health (DH).The NHS is in charge of the healthcare and DH governs the NHS. The system also provides social services which support and protect people who are vulnerable/at risk, provides private residential homes and home care (independent sector), voluntary services for everyone, provide protection and improve the health of communities and promote health. The system gives opportunity to everyone who uses the services to rise their opinions about the services they receive throughout the four countries; England, Scotland, wales and Northern Ireland. For the system to function effectively and provide all the services mention above, it has to follow specific policy and practice approved by minster of health in UK. The National Health Services (NHS) of the UK since 1948 to present is well known as the world’s biggest publicly capital to health services. The NHS intended to deliver care to all its populace in a fair and efficient manner (Klein, 2006). Its main aim was to ensure better and free healthcare are provided to all citizens despite of their income. However services like the optical, prescriptions and dental are exception as part of the free services. Generally, the NHS is funded through taxation paid by employees directly from their salaries rather than requiring from insurance payments. Although NHS is managed separately throughout Scotland, England, Northern Ireland, and Wales, they tend to keep constant in many respects. Thus they urged to belong to the same ‘Unified system’. DH (2010) state that “worldwide the NHS employs more than 1.7millons, half of the employed includes the Doctors, Dentists, Medical and Ambulance staffs, Nurses and lastly both the community and hospital health services”. NHS has a unique structure from other healthcare systems, it consists of Primary and Secondary care. Furthermore, best features of NHS are the Authorities and Trusts services practiced all around UK. In Primary Care, services are delivered by the Gps, Pharmacists, Optometrists and Dentists. The GPS are the frontline contact with the UK health care system as well as working with other practitioners to provide all the care needed by the patients. Unlike in Africa, every patient has a right to be registered with GP of their choice in the UK. On the other hand, dentists, pharmacists and optometrists are under private sector although there are some circumstance where it falls under NHS, for example if the patient is admitted in NHS hospital and the services is part of the treatment care. Free prescription is available for NHS client with an exception to control drugs. Likewise, NHS provides free eye test and glasses. Secondary care is divided into elective and emergency care. Elective care is a planned, non-emergency care between the doctor and the patient. Department of Health (2010) acknowledges that in England “patients have the right to access NHS services with minimum waiting times or NHS to take rational steps to offer an alternative care”. Emergency care is located in all main hospitals in UK. The NHS makes sure all emergency departments are staffed by doctors, emergency specialized nurses, medical technicians, radiology, healthcare assistance and sometimes voluntary emergency staff. The emergency services are free for all UK residents. NHS trusts is a link between the healthcare organization and the NHS itself. They are six trusts and two health authorities. Primary care trusts (PCT’s) responsible for primary care together with other organizations work hand in hand to make sure all the needs of the communities are met effectively. PCT’s takes up to eighty present of the NHS budget as it is the main center of NHS...
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