INDIAN SPACE RESEARCH
Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO, /ˈɪəɛrɵ/; Hindi: भारतीय अंतरिक्ष अनुसंधान संगठन Bhāratīya Antarikṣa Anusandhāna Saṅgaṭhana) is the primary body for space research under the control of Government of India and one of the big six advanced space research organization that dominate space,others being NASA (U.S), RKA (Russia), CNSA (China), ESA (Europe) and JAXA (Japan). It was established in its modern form in 1969 as a result of coordinated efforts initiated earlier. Activities for the exploration of space within and outside of Earth’s atmosphere. Headquartered in Bangalore (Bengaluru). ISRO’s chief executive is a chairman, who is also chairman of the Indian government’s Space Commission and the secretary of the Department of Space. ISRO’s first satellite, Aryabhata, was launched by the Soviet Union in 1975. Rohini, the first satellite to be placed in orbit by an Indian-made launch vehicle (the Satellite Launch Vehicle 3) was launched in 1980. ISRO subsequently developed two other rockets: the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle for putting satellites into polar orbit and the Geostationary Space Launch Vehicle for placing satellites into geostationary orbit. These rockets have launched communications satellites, Earth-observation satellites, and, in 2008, Chandrayaan-1, India’s first mission to the Moon. ISRO plans to put two astronauts into orbit in 2015. Over the years, ISRO has conducted a variety of operations for both Indian and foreign clients. ISRO's satellite launch capability is mostly provided by indigenous launch vehicles and launch sites. In 2008, ISRO successfully launched its first lunar probe, Chandrayaan-1, while future plans include indigenous development of GSLV, manned space missions, further lunar exploration, and interplanetary probes. ISRO has several field installations as assets, and cooperates with the international community as a part of several bilateral and multilateral agreement
Aryabhatta was India's first satellite, named after the great Indian astronomer of the same name. It was launched by the Soviet Union on 19 April 1975 from Kapustin Yar using a Cosmos-3M launch vehicle. It was built by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) to gain experience in building and operating a satellite in space. The 96.3 minute orbit had an apogee of 619 km and a perigee of 563 km, at an inclination of 50.7 degrees. It was built to conduct experiments in X-ray astronomy, aeronomics, and solar physics. The spacecraft was a 26-sided polygon 1.4 m in diameter. All faces (except the top and bottom) were covered with solar cells. A power failure halted experiments after 4 days in orbit. All signals from the spacecraft were lost after 5 days of operation. The satellite reentered the Earth's atmosphere on 11 February 1992. The satellite's image appeared on the reverse of Indian 2 rupee banknotes between 1976 and 1997 (Pick catalog and one rupee note number: P-79a-m).
The Bhaskara-I and II Satellites were two satellites built by the Indian Space Research Organisation that formed India's first low orbit Earth Observation Satellite. They collected data on telemetry, oceanography and hydrology.
Bhaskara-I, weighing 444 kg at launch, was launched on 7 June 1979 from Kapustin Yar aboard the Intercosmos launch vehicle. It was placed in an orbital Perigee and Apogee of 394 km and 399 km at an inclination of 50.7°. The satellite consisted of- Two television cameras operating in visible (600 nanometre) and near-infrared (800 nanometre) and collected data related to hydrology, forestry and geology. Satellite microwave radiometer (SAMIR) operating at 19 and 22 GHz for study of ocean-state, water vapour, liquid water content in the atmosphere, etc. The satellite provided ocean and land surface data. However, the cameras malfunctioned. Housekeeping telemetry was received until re-entry on 17...
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