November 22, 2012
Title IX: The Progression of Woman
Prior to Title IX (before 1870), women’s opportunity for physical activity was restricted due to the fact that sports were a “men’s” thing. Activities for women included noncompetitive and rule-less where they emphasized informal activities rather than competition. Women in sports, before Title IX was signed, made huge strides against the stereotype that women cannot compete. In 1926, Gertrude Ederle became the first woman to swim across the English Channel and who set the world record. In 1945, Babe Didrikson Zaharias became the first woman to compete in the PGA golf tour where she made the 36-hole cut to compete against men. On June 23, 1972 Title IX was signed and put into effect. Title IX stated that “No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.” Even after the implementation of Title IX, women in sports still make strides for equality among sports with men. Not only are they in competition with each other, they are in competition with society and the equality amongst themselves and men. Point II:
A personal experience I had in high school were regarding field requirements the same as the baseball field. My high school originally had a baseball field. For softball, however, Varsity and Junior Varsity girls had to take the bus everyday to a nearby park to practice and this is where our home games were held as well. The level of play was the same as baseball; we were very much talented and made it far into playoffs. In my school, football and all the boy’s sports came first. The football team got the most funding out of all the sports and so did the boys sports over the girls. I decided to do my research to see if it was really fair that all the male athletics got the upper hand on women’s athletics. I contacted the school district and complained about the conditions the girls had to go through in order to practice, or even to receive better funding. I got many parents and many other girl’s teams to complain. Sure enough, my sophomore year of high school, we got better funding for girl’s sports, and the construction of a softball field began on our campus. Point III:
1. “As a result of their [women] perseverance, millions of American girls can now play sports. Young women make up half of the nation's medical and law students, and star on the best basketball, soccer, and softball teams in the world. This small law made a huge difference.” (Blumenthal). Pg. 54
2. “Title IX represents a watershed in the history of girls' and women's education. In 1971, the year before Title IX was passed, fewer than 295,000 high school girls and 30,000 college women participated in their schools' athletic programs. By 2001, those numbers had increased to 2.8 million and 150,000, respectively.” (Ware). Pg. 23
3. “Title IX, the law, prohibits any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance from discriminating on the basis of sex.” (Carpenter). Pg. 78
4. “Title IX covers state and local agencies that receive ED funds.” (U.S. Department of Education/Office of Civil Rights.) .
5. “When Congress passed Title IX of the Civil Rights Act in 1972, they seemed to be doing something laudable and also long overdue-prohibiting discrimination on the basis of sex in America's schools. But thirty years later, a law designed to guarantee equal opportunity has become the most explicit, government-enforced quota regime in America, putting boys and men on the losing side of a battle for athletic and educational opportunity.” (Gayora). Pg. 117
6. “On June 27, 2002, U.S. Secretary of Education Rod Paige established the Secretary’s Commission of Opportunities in Athletics he first federal advisory panel to study Title IX.”...