" No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance (Patricia, 1977, p. 15)."
What you have just read above is the "Prohibition of Sex Discrimination", also known as Title IX. Title IX has been effective in the realm of education for nearly three decades, but has been a source a controversy in collegiate sports. Since the beginning of time, women were believed to be inferior to men in every way. Women were socialized to bear children and take care of the household when, and only when, the men were out hunting. Through sports, women were able to rise up, challenge the status quo and rewrite the history books. Has Title IX really helped women's' collegiate sports? With differences, has it made? I will answer these questions in this paper. Discussion
There are major three areas of regulation in Title IX: Treatment, Accommodation, and Proportionality (Jacob, 1993, p. 27). Treatment is the university treating men' and women's team differently. This includes scholarships, scheduling of games and practices, travel allowances, compensation of coaches, or provisions of facilities. Any unequal treatment in any of these areas would result in a violation of Title IX. This does not include club athletics (Jacob, 1993, p. 27). Accommodation is the area of much focus of Title IX. It involves universities giving equal opportunity for both men's and women's athletic interests. An example would be if a university had a baseball team and not a softball team. This would be considered a violation (Jacob, 1993, p. 27). Proportionality is the participation must be proportionate to the enrollment numbers. This is a major area of controversy. For example, if enrollment is 56% male and 44% female, 44% of athletes must be female and 44% of resources must go toward female sports. The "substantial" clause gives a ratio of about a 10% range of compliance (Jacob, 1993, p. 28). Title IX has worked wonders in education. Women outnumber men on many college campuses across the nation. Graduation rates for women have also increased nearly 500% since the implementing of Title IX (Egendorf, 1999, p108). On the downside, because of Tile IX many campuses across the country have cut certain athletic teams on their campuses. Two of the most recent colleges campuses to have felt the negative affects of Title IX, were Brown and Providence. Each university had to cut a men's athletic program of unlimited funding and Title IX. Title IX has also hit close to home. Cal Poly has felt the affects of Title IX. The most devastating being the incident with John Madden donating $10 million to Cal Poly football. Madden was unable to give his donation just to football. Administration said it would be divided up evenly among all sports. Madden was so upset with this, he severed all ties with the university. This was a huge let down. The money John Madden nearly donated would have been used to rebuild Mustang Stadium and the athletic weight room. All athletic programs at Cal Poly, not to mention the local high school championship games, use both of these facilities. This money would have benefited Cal Poly as well as the community. Yes, the left over funds were for the football program to help with scholarships and equipment. Other Cal Poly women's sports were allowed to receive donations from alumni, but not football, because of the size of the donation. It is not the football program's fault, they happen to have one of the most famous football icons of all time as alumni. The amount of the donation should have nothing to do with whether or not a team is able to accept a donation. Title IX presence in a college setting is well known, but women athlete do not have the best opportunities after their collegiate careers to move up into the...