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World History Benchmark 3 and SOL Exam Study Guide

Unit 1: World in 1500
Textbook: Pages 1-11, Chap. 4, Sec 1-2, Chap. 6, Sec. 1-3


WHII.2a:
Location of some of the major states and empires in the Eastern Hemisphere England
France
Spain
Russia
Ottoman Empire - Turks
Persia – modern day Iran
China
Mughal India
Songhai Empire – northwest Africa
Location of major states and empires in the Western Hemisphere Incan Empire – western South America. Conquered by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro Mayan Empire - southern Mexico and Central America

Aztec Empire – central Mexico. Conquered by Hernando Cortez

WHII.2d:
Traditional trade patterns linking Europe with Asia and Africa Silk road across Asia to the Mediterranean basin
Maritime routes across the Indian Ocean
Trans-Saharan routes across North Africa
Northern European links with the Black Sea
Western European sea and river trade
South China Sea and lands of Southeast Asia

Importance of trade patterns
Exchange of products and ideas

WHII.2e:
Advancements exchanged along trade routes
Paper, compass, silk, porcelain (China)
Textiles, numeral system (India and Middle East)
Scientific transfer—Medicine, astronomy, mathematics

Unit 2: World Religions
Textbook: Chap. 2 pages 80-85, Chap. 2, Sec. 2-3, Chap. 3, Sec. 1, Chap. 2 page 80 WHII.2c:
Location and importance of world religions in 1500 a.d.
Judaism—Concentrated in Europe and the Middle East
Christianity—Concentrated in Europe and the Middle East
Islam—Parts of Asia, Africa, and southern Europe
Hinduism—India and part of Southeast Asia
Buddhism—East and Southeast Asia

WHII.14a:
Judaism
Monotheism
Ten Commandments of moral and religious conduct
Torah—Written record and beliefs of Hebrews

Christianity
Monotheism
Jesus as Son of God
Life after death
New Testament—Life and teachings of Jesus
Establishment of Christian doctrine by early church councils

Islam
Monotheism
Muhammad the prophet
Koran
Five Pillars of Islam
Mecca and Medina

Buddhism
Founder—Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha)
Four Noble Truths
Eightfold Path to Enlightenment
Spread of Buddhism from India to China and other parts of Asia, resulting from Asoka’s missionaries and their writings

Hinduism
Many forms of one deity
Caste system


Reincarnation


Karma—Future reincarnation based on present behavior

WHII.14b:
Geographical distribution of world’s major religions
Judaism—Concentrated in Israel and North America
Christianity —Concentrated in Europe, North and South America Islam—Concentrated in the Middle East, Africa, and Asia
Hinduism—Concentrated in India
Buddhism—Concentrated in East and Southeast Asia

Unit 3: Renaissance & Reformation
Textbook: Chap. 5, Sec. 1-4


WHII.2b:
Renaissance
“Rebirth” of classical knowledge, “birth” of the modern world Spread of the Renaissance from the Italian city states to northern Europe

Contributions of the Renaissance
Accomplishments in the visual arts—Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci Accomplishments in literature (sonnets, plays, essays)—Shakespeare Accomplishments in intellectual ideas (humanism)—Erasmus

WHII.3a:


Conflicts that challenged the authority of the Church in Rome Merchant wealth challenged the Church’s view of usury.
German and English nobility disliked Italian domination of the Church. The Church’s great political power and wealth caused conflict. Church corruption and the sale of indulgences were widespread and caused conflict.

Martin Luther (the Lutheran tradition)
Views—Salvation by faith alone, Bible as the ultimate authority, all humans equal before God Actions—95 theses, birth of the Protestant Church

John Calvin (the Calvinist tradition)
Views—Predestination, faith revealed by living a righteous life, work ethic Actions—Expansion of the Protestant Movement

King Henry VIII (the Anglican tradition)
Views—Dismissed the authority of the Pope in Rome
Actions—Divorced...
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