Locarno Conference 1925
∙ Italy hoped it would guarantee Austria as its frontier but it did not Comintern
∙ Communists International aimed to create the vision Marx had had of an international communist power ruling the world ∙ Headed by Stalin
Rise of Hitler, wanted to:
destroy the Versailles settlement
build up the army
recover lost territory
Lebensraum (living space for the German people)
Hitler withdrew Germany from World Disarmament Conference and from the League of Nations. He explained it by saying that France did not agree to Germany having equal armaments.
Mussolini and Italy:
rivalry with France
worried about the Brenner Pass
friendly towards Greece, Hungary, and Albania → signed economic and defense agreements → Albania virtually controlled by Italy supported Britain, who rewarded Italy with a small part of Somaliland the second state to recognize the USSR
supported anti-Nazi government of Chancellor Dollfuss in Austria
wanted to weaken Social Democratic parties of Europe, who did not support the working classes of the Western world supported Collective Security
January – Hitler signed a 10 year non-aggression pact with Poland, which ruined France's Little Entente, guaranteed Polish neutrality when German moved against Czechoslovakia and Austria. Improved France's and the USSR's relations.
June – Hitler and Mussolini met for the first time. Mussolini started supporting Hitler.
July – The murder of Chancellor Dollfuss. Italy sent troops to Austria. The anti-Nazi move improved relations between France and Italy.
September – The USSR joined the League of Nations. Litvinov advocated disarmament and collective security against fascist offensives
∙ Stalin started seeing Hitler as a threat and with the Comintern, he aimed to grasp German militarism by building anti-fascist alliances. 1935:
January – Saar returned to Germany
March – Hitler reintroduced conscription of the Versailles settlement. Germany started building up an army that was 6 times bigger than allowed by the peace treaty.
April – Stresa Front: Mussolini joined Britain and France to convict the German action and guaranteeing Austria.
May – USSR formed defensive military alliances with France and Czechoslovakia
June – Anglo-German Naval Agreement. Hitler promised to decreace Germany's navalry to 35% that of Britain's → Mussolini convinced that Britain only thought of self-interest.
October – Italy invaded Abyssinia (Ethiopia).
∙ The Comintern announced new policy: popular fronts (anti-fascist “umbrella” of governments). Consisted of leftists, liberals, moderates, and conservatives to oppose fascism. They were mainly formed in France and Spain.
∙ Spanish Civil War broke out
∙ Britain's, France's, and League of Nations' “non-intervention” -policy failed and assisted the anti-fascists of the Spanish Civil War. ∙ Germany and Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact
∙ Mussolini sent troops to assist Franco and justified it by saying it is to prevent the spreading of communism. He actually wanted: naval bases to threaten France
establish a third fascist state
∙ Rome-Berlin Axis (November)
∙ Hitler sent troops to demilitarized Rhineland in March.
1937: Italy joined the Anti-Comintern Pact.
March – Anschluss of Austria: German troops moved to Austria, which became part of the Third Reich → revealed Britain's and France's weakness, they only protested but did not take action → marked beginning of the operation of uniting the German-speaking people of the Sudentenland
September – 29th Munich:
USSR and Czechoslovakia not invited, “no war” agreement between Germany and Britain. Britain thought this was the savior from war but Hitler did not keep this promise.
∙ After Munich, Stalin abandoned collective security...