1851-53 France challenged Russia's position as custodian of Christian holy places within the Ottoman Empire; it sought special considerations for Latin Christian churches from the Ottoman Turks; these were granted (1852) and the Russians, who favoured Greek Orthodox Christians, were roused to action.
1853 Russian Tsar Nicholas I delivered an ultimatum to the Turkish government in May. The Russian demands were refused and in July its forces occupied Moldavia and Walachia (now part of Romania).
1853 The Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia (Oct. 23).
1854 France and Britain declared war on Russia during March.
1854 Russia withdrew from Moldavia and Walachia under pressure from Austria; the Austrian army moved into the region in August.
1854 British and French forces landed on the Crimean Peninsula on the north coast of the Black Sea and were victorious in the Battle of Alma River on Sept. 20. Soon after this the Russian forces withdrew to Sevastopol.
1854 During October the Allied forces began siege of Sevastopol, key Russian position on Black Sea.
1854 On October 25th at the Battle of Balaklava the Russians failed to break siege of Sevastopol but inflicted heavy casualties on the British; this battle inspired Tennyson's famous poem Charge of the Light Brigade.
1854 On November 5th the Russians were defeated at the Battle of Inkerman but the siege of Sevastopol continued.
1854-55 The military action halted during the winter. The severe conditions suffered by the war casualties led to Florence Nightingale's celebrated nursing efforts.
1855 During January Sardinia declared war against Russia.
1855 Nicholas died in March and Alexander II became Russian Czar. He made moves to negotiate an end to the war.
1855 On August 16th the Russian forces marching to relieve Sevastopol were defeated at Battle of Chernaya River.
1855 On September 8th the Allied forces besieging...