The time value of money
A rupee today is more valuable than a rupee a year hence. Thus money has time value this is because of several reasons:-1) Individuals, in general prefer current consumption to future consumption.2) In an inflationary period, a rupee today represents a greater real purchasing power than a rupee a year hence.3) Capital can be employed productively to generate positive returns. An investment of one rupee today would grow to (1+r) a year hence (r is the rate of return earned on the investment. The process of investing money as well as reinvesting the interest earned thereon is called compounding.The future value of a compounded value of an investment after n years when the interest rate is r percent is: FVn=PV(1+r)n

In this equation (1+r)n is called the future value interest factor or simply the future value factor. The difference between compound and simple interest is Compound interest means that each interest payment is reinvested to earn further interest in future periods whereas if no interest is earned on interest the investment earns only simple interest. According to the rule of 72, the doubling period under compounding is obtained by dividing 72 by the interest rate. For example if the interest rate is 8% the doubling period is 9 years (72/8) According to the rule of 69 the doubling period is equal to 0.35 +69/interest rate.The rule of 69 is more accurate than rule of 72 though it involves more calculation. An annuity is a stream of constant cash flows (payments and receipts) occurring at regular intervals of time. The premium payments of a life insurance policy, for example are an annuity.When the cash flows occur at the end of each period, the annuity is called an ordinary annuity or a deferred annuity.When the cash flows occur at the beginning of each period, the annuity is called an annuity due. The future value of an annuity- FVAn=A(1+r)n-1+A(1+r)n-2+…..+A =A[(1+r)n-1]/r...

...Timevalue of money ("TVM") is defined as the idea that money available at the present time is worth more than the same amount in the future, due to its potential earning capacity. This core principle of finance holds that, provided money can earn interest, any amount of money is worth more the sooner it is received. TVM is also often referred to as "present discounted value" (Answers Corporation, 2006). TVM concepts help people like managers or investors understand the benefits and the future cash flow to help them determine if the future benefits will justify the initial cost of the project or investment. To recognize how annuities (a set of fixed payments over a specified length of time) affect the TVM, managers need to consider the factors of interest rates, opportunity cost, future and present values of the money, and compounding. In this paper, I will explain how annuities affect TVM problems and investment outcomes. I will also address the impact of the following on TVM; interest rates and compounding, present value, opportunity cost, and annuities as well as the Rule of 72.
How do annuities affect TVM problems outcomes? Annuities are an investment that promise a constant amount of cash over a certain period. Since annuities generally gain interest, the organization receiving the payments is gaining...

...Abstract
The first steps toward understanding the relationship between the value of dollars today and that of dollars in the future is by looking at how funds invested will grow over time. This understanding will allow one to answer such questions as; how much should be invested today to produce a specified future sum of money?
TimeValue of Money
In most cases, borrowing money is not free, unless it is a fiver for lunch from a friend. Interest is the cost of borrowing money. An interest rate is the cost stated as a percent of the amount borrowed per a period of time, usually one year. The current market rates are composed of three items.
The Real Rate of Interest is what compensates lenders for postponing their own spending during the term of the loan. An Inflation Premium is added to offset the possibility that inflation may eat into the value of the money during the term of the loan. In addition, various Risk Premiums are added to compensate the lender for risky loans such as unsecured loans made to borrowers with questionable credit ratings or loans that the lender may not be able to easily resell.
The first two components of the interest rate listed above, the real rate of interest and an inflation premium, together are referred to as the nominal risk-free rate. In the United States, the nominal risk-free...

...In financial management, one of the most important concepts is the TimeValue of Money (TVM). TimeValue of Money concepts helps a manager or investors understand the benefits and the future cash flow to help justify the initial cost of the project or investment. Many of the assets businesses and individuals own are financed with money borrowed from others, so the understanding of TVM is crucial to making good buying decisions. To recognize how annuities affect the timevalue of money, managers need to consider the factors of interest rate, opportunity costs, future and present values of money, and compounding.
Interest Rates and CompoundingIn most business cases, borrowing money is not necessarily a free enterprise. It costs companies money to obtain funds on credit to finance various aspects of their business. The fee that a borrower pays to a lender for use of its money is interest. The annual percentage rate (APR) makes assumptions based on simple interest, which is interest only earned on the principal investment.
Another method of accruing interest is through compounding. Compound interest is not only charged on the original investment, but also assessed on the interest charged or earned for each period. "When comparing interest rates, it is best to use...

...Finance Basics for Managers Fall 2011
TimeValue of Money Problems
Calculating Future Values
Assume you deposit $10,000 today in an account that pays 6% interest. How much will you have in five years?
= $10,000 (FVIF of 6%, 5years)
= $10,000 * 1.3382
= $13,382
Calculating Present Values
Suppose you have just celebrated your 19th birthday. A rich uncle has set up a trust fund for you that will pay you $150,000 when you turn 30. If the relevant discount rate is 9%, how much is the fund worth today?
We know,
Present Value = Future Cash Flow / (1 + Required Rate of Return) ^Number of Years You Have To Wait For The Cash Flow
Given,
Present value = $150,000 / (1 + .09) ^ 11
= $150,000 / 2.5804
= $ 58,130
Therefore,
The present value is thus about $58,130.
Calculating Rates of Return
You’ve been offered an investment that will double your money in 10 years. What rate of return are you being offered? Use the Rule of 72 to calculate the answer.
Suppose, we spend $1,000, than according the question the money will be double in 10 years which will $2,000. So,
Present value = $1,000
Future Value = $2,000
Time = $ 10 year
$2,000 = $1,000 * (1 + r)^10
2 = (1 + r) ^10
2(1/10) = 1...

...FINANCE
TIMEVALUE OF MONEY
The aim of this paper is to learn about time-value-of-money to make optimal decisions as manger must understand the relationship between a dollars present today and a dollar in the future.
Timevalue of money
Today’s financial managers often have to compare cash payments that occur on different dates. To make optimal decisions, the manager must understand the relationship between a dollar today [present value] and a dollar in the future [future value]. The timevalue of money is basically a measurement or perspective of an investment you might make while still considering its future decrease in value due to inflation. The timevalue of money allows us to understand what that inflation or decrease may become in the future or present. Most importantly, the timevalue of money concept allows us to decide whether it would be beneficial placing a sum of money into investment where it collects value from interest, or whether that same amount of money would be most valuable in the present due to inflation rates.
Understanding the concept of timevalue of money
It...

...TimeValue of Money
The timevalue of money (TVM) or, discounted present value, is one of the basic concepts of finance and was developed by Leonardo Fibonacci in 1202. The timevalue of money (TVM) is based on the premise that one will prefer to receive a certain amount of money today than the same amount in the future, all else equal. As a result, when one deposits money in a bank account, one demands (and earns) interest. Money received today is more valuable than money received in the future by the amount of interest we can earn with the money. If $90 today will accumulate to $100 a year from now, then the present value of $100 to be received one year from now is $90.
To fully understand timevalue of money one must first understand a few terms. Present value and future value are totally different. They also have their disadvantages and advantages; it just depends on how they are used. Of course, present value is what you have right now at this present time. While future value is the amount of money you will have at a given time in the future. Future value has a tendency to be deep;...

... This article will explain the financial concept of timevalue of money. The overview provides an introduction to the principles at work when money grows in value over time. These principles include future value of money, present value of money, simple interest and compound interest. In addition, other concepts that relate to factors that can impede the growth in value of money over time are explained, including risk, inflation and accessibility of assets. Basic formulas and tables have been provided to assist in calculating various formulations of timevalue of money problems. Explanations of common financial dealings in which the timevalue of money is an important consideration, such as annuities, loan amortization and tax deferral options, are included to help illustrate the concept of the timevalue of money in everyday life.
The timevalue of money is a fundamental financial principle. Its basic premise is that money gains value over time. As a result, a dollar saved today will be worth more in the future, and a dollar paid today costs more than a dollar paid later in...

...TIMEVALUE OF MONEYTimevalue of money is useful in making informed business decisions. For example the "net present value method" can be used to help decide the best alternative among multiple alternative uses of a firm or personal financial resources. By discounting various alternatives to their "present value" one can compare the alternatives. Timevalue of money can also answer such questions as what one's investment will be worth at a certain point of time in the future, assuming a certain interest rate. Timevalue of money can also be used to compute such useful information as car, mortgage and other loan payments. Another use of timevalue of money in accounting is reporting of certain long-term assets and liabilities.
Timevalue of money is based on the principle of compound interest. Each time there is a compounding period the new principal is increased by the interest from the previous period.
Converting Before Using the Tables
When using the tables, you may need to convert if, for example, in a lump sum situation there are more than one compounding periods in a year. Or you may need to convert (to monthly compounding) if, for...

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