Time and Motion Study

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Model for the construction industry using pre-determined times

Jasper Van Gilsa, Leo Vaningelgema

This paper is based on our work experience with Office-line. This company prepares standard times for companies in the industrial sector. Standard time is productive time that is required and achieved by an employee. Standard time contains everything that is necessary for the work specified to be completed. The reason why Office-line only prepare standard times for the industrial sector rather than the construction industry is due to the repetitive nature of the work. One example is the car industry which uses assembly lines. In the construction sector, this kind of repetition is not so evident. There is repetitiveness in some part of the work, but this would only occur as part of a larger concept.  It is therefore impossible to give an estimated time spent on work that is non-repetitive.   In this model we will use some standard times in the construction industry for scientific purposes only. This means that we will not be using a chronometer or any subsequent calculations but we will act on the basis of pre-calculations  to find out what the times will be. These times are the (average) established  times for an able bodied worker. Recordings of these were made and the resulting times have been analysed in 2 different ways: * the speed rating system

* the theory of Leon Carlos Willemarck (LCW)
Subsequently we can compare these times with current times.  The resulting times in this paper will often differ from the current times. This is because we used a different basis from which to make these calculations. There are many aspects which were not included and this is why making comparisons can be difficult. You need to have exactly the same conditions for each situation measured to be able to compare these times.  Keywords: construction industry, yields, repetitive, rhythm

* Contact information
Dept. Of Applied Science & Technology, Artesis Hogeschool Antwerpen Paardenmarkt 92, B-2000 Antwerpen, Belgium


In metal industry predetermined time systems are being used to calculate standard times. This is mostly used for tasks that have a large repetitivity of short cycles. An example is line production in the automotive industry. Officeline is a company that has large experience in this field. This company has clients as Volvo and Tupperware for which it creates standard times and workload for employees. In this paper we will try to see if these predetermined time systems can be used in the construction industry as well. Our goal is to see if it’s possible to create standard times for some specific tasks in the construction industry. For this purpose we’ve made an appeal to the company Officeline which helped us by setting standard times that we have compared to classic standard times that are already used in the construction industry. Classic standard times are not measured on a scientific way but they are based on experience and average times of executed works. These times are not transparent enough towards the building owners although they are used by almost every building contractor. Pre determined time measurement

There are a lot of systems for predetermined time measurement. Motion time measurement (MTM) is the most used. This system was designed to avoid the need to judge the level at which an employee is working. This systems analyses the motions that are necessary to complete a specific task. These motions have predetermined times which are the result of years of investigation. The sum of the motion times give the production standard for the job. For our research we will use the system of Leon Carlos Willemarck (LCW). This is a simplified system of MTM. In this system only six different motions are defined: 1/4V, 1/2V, 1/8V, step, bend and power step. MTM classifies motions into around 400 different codes. This makes LCW much...
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