Three Part Paper on Public Policy Concerning Modern Policing, Human Capital and Health Care

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Community Policing Issues
Part I

Contemporary Police theory or Modern policing is focusing on crime and social disorder through the delivery of police services, which include aspects of traditional law enforcement, as well as prevention, problem-solving, community engagement, and partnerships. The community policing model balances reactive responses to calls for service with proactive problem-solving which centers on the cause of crime and disorder. Community policing requires police and citizens to join together as partners in the course of both identifying and effectively addressing these issues. Community policing is police patrolling a given area not to protect against crime, but to mitigate the effects of crime before they start. Modern policing has returned to its roots, the legacy of Alfred the Great. (The first time in English history that a leader or authority figure was considered financially obligated to catch criminals). Community Policing is made up of three core elements; Organizational Elements, Tactical Elements, and External elements.

Organizational Elements
These elements can be broken up into five areas; Philosophy Adopted Organization-Wide, Decentralized Decision-Making and Accountability, Fixed Geographic Accountability and Generalist Responsibilities, Utilization of Volunteer Resources, and Enhancers. Organizational elements also deal with interoperability between agencies local, state and federal.

Philosophy adopted organization-wide
Department-wide adoption of community policing is evident by community policing characteristics in each departments; mission statements, policies and procedures, performance evaluations and hiring and promotional practices, training programs and other systems and activities that define organizational culture and activities. Organizational systems support and value a service orientation for seasoned personnel and new recruits alike by stressing the importance of different units within the agency working cooperatively in support of community policing. Implementation of the community policing may occur incrementally and within specialized units at first, but a defined path leads towards full, department-wide implementation.

Decentralized decision-making and accountability
In community policing, individual officers are given the authority to solve problems and make operational decisions suitable to their roles, both individually and collectively. Each individual is allowed to make judgments to the best of their abilities. Leadership is required and rewarded at every level, with managers, supervisors, and officers all held accountable for decisions and the effects of those decisions throughout the community.

Fixed geographic accountability and generalist responsibilities In community policing, the majority of staffing, command, deployment, and tactical decision-making are geographically based. Appropriate personnel are assigned to fixed geographic areas for extended periods of time in order to foster communication and partnerships between individual officers and their community, they are accountable for reducing crime and disorder within their assigned area. The geographic boundaries are naturally determined based more on communities rather than statistical divisions. Areas may overlap or be far apart based on the community characteristics.

Utilization of Volunteer Resources
Community policing encourages the use of non-law enforcement resources within a police department. Volunteerism is a way to involve active citizens with law enforcement agencies. The law enforcement organization educates the public about ways that they can partner with the police department and its members to further community policing, and provides an effective way to receive citizen input. Volunteer efforts can also help to free up officer time, and allow sworn personnel to be more proactive and prevention oriented. Examples of such resources might include police reserves,...
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