Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the immediately usable form of chemical energy use for muscular activity. It is stored in most cells, especially muscle cells. Other forms of chemical energy, such as that available from foods we eat must be transforming into ATP before they can be utilized by muscle cells . Human body cells generated ATP by three methods which are:
I. ATP-PC system
II. Glycolytic system
III. Oxidative system
ATP-PC System (Anaerobic ATP production)
This system also known as phosphagen system, which is the simplest of the energy system. it is the formation of ATP by Phosphocreatine (PC) breakdown. PC is a high-energy phosphate molecule that store in the muscle cells. Energy is release when PC is breakdown to Pі and Creatine by enzyme Creatine Kinase. Then, PC will be simply added into Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to form ATP by using energy that released from the breakdown of PC.
1 mole of PC will yield 1 mole of ATP. This system is anaerobic that functions to maintain the ATP levels. It provides energy for short-term and high-intensity exercise that lasting about 3-15 seconds.
Glycolytic system is the breaking down of glucose or liver glycogen to pyruvic acid via glycolytic enzymes. This system only uses carbohydrate as the main source of fuel and occurs in the sarcoplasm of the muscle cells. The glycolysis system can rapidly produce ATP without use oxygen. Glycogen is synthesized from glucose by a process called glycogenesis and stored in the liver or in muscle until needed. Before either glucose or glycogen can be used to generate energy, they must be converted to a compound called glucose-6-phosphate. The conversion of a molecule of glucose requires 1mole of ATP. 1 mole of glucose produces 2ATPs or 1 mole of glycogen produces 3ATPs.
Glycolitic system provides energy for high intensity exercise up to 2 minutes. If...