Civilizations began to show their face around the area now known as Egypt and some parts of Europe around the Mediterranean. These were said to be some of the earliest and most advanced civilizations of their time. These civilizations were known as Ancient Egypt, Ancient Sumer and the Babylonians.
The oldest and certainly one of the most advanced was ancient Egypt. The people of ancient Egypt were polytheistic and believed that their Pharaoh (King) was god as well and held divine right. The people also believed in reincarnation and what you were buried with you were able to take with you to the after life. They built huge Tombs called pyramids where they buried their rulers after they died. It is still unknown how they managed to build Pyramids with the limited technology at their time. They had a form of ideograms called hieroglyphics and they mummified their dead.
Ancient Sumer was a collection of Ancient city-states which each had their own ziggurat where the people believed the god of their city lived. They too were polytheistic. Sumer was located in what is now known as the Fertile Crescent. The soil is very rich and capable of growing large amounts of food. The Sumarians discovered irrigation and are believed to be having the first organized cities. Trade mostly cared for their economic life. They even had a school for scribes.
Hammurabi ruled Babylon. He is responsible for crating the first set of laws. If these laws were broken they were paid with swift harsh punishment. While king of Babylon he managed to bring much of the Mesopotamia under his control. Hammurabi improved irrigation and organized a well-trained army. Hammurabi even had temples repaired as a part of the public services he established and promoted the chief Babylon god Marduk. Over time Babylon will pass from one civilization to another as most people tried to conquer...