1. Q: Explain the nature and outcome of the Greek independence movement. What other results emerged from the Near Easter crisis of the late 1820s? A: The Greeks had been under the domination of the Ottoman Turks since 1815. A sense of unity between the Greeks still survived and caused nationalism and a desire for independence. In 1821, Alexander Ypsilanti led a revolt. The Greek Powers, especially Metternich, refused to support Ypsilanti because they were against revolution. Instead, the supported the Ottoman Empire. Many other Europeans supported the Greek national struggle for holy reasons; they were in love with and drawn to the Greek culture. In 1827, Great Britain, France, and Russia directed Turkey to accept an armistice. The Turks refused and the navies of these three countries trapped and destroyed the Turkish fleet at Navarino. The Near Eastern or Middle Eastern crisis was when Russia declared a war of expansion against the Turks and claimed much of present day Romania. In 1830, Great Britain, France, and Russia declared Greece as independent. In 1832, they put a German prince as the king of the new country. 2. Q: What accounted for the July Revolution in France? Explain the division of opinion in the groups that had favored the revolution. How was the conflict resolved? A: In March 1830 the Chamber of Deputies passed a vote of no confidence in the government. Charles X dissolved the Chamber and called for new elections. The elections n rejected the king’s policies. On July 26, 1830, he replied with four ordinances issued on his authority: one dissolved the newly elected Chamber; another imposed censorship on the press; a different one reduced the voting power of bankers, merchants, and industrialists and concentrated the voting in the aristocracy; the final ordinance called for an election on the new basis.
The July Revolution occurred on the subsequent day. The bourgeoisie was furious that their political status had been removed. The republicans were the ones who literally revolted. From July 27 to July 29 barricades were constructed in the city. Behind the barricades, the population defied t he army and police. Fearful Charles X resigned and fled to England.
Some leaders wanted a democratic republic. Political liberals were supported by bankers, industrialists, various journalists, and intellectuals. These political liberals wanted to maintain a constitutional monarchy that was semi-liberalized and in the hands of a trustworthy king. Lafayette, the hero of the American and the French revolutions, commander of the reorganized National Guard, and a popular symbol of national unity, made a compromise. He offered the Duke of Orleans. The duke was related to the Bourbons, and served in the republican army of 1792 as a young man. The duke was accepted by militant republicans. On August 7, he was offered the throne by the Chamber of Deputies if he promised to observe faithfully the constitutional charter of 1814. He reigned until 1848 as Louis Philippe. 3. Q: Discuss the constitutional and political changes that took place under Louis Philippe’s regime. Which classes were the beneficiaries? Which groups remained dissatisfied? A: Louis’ regime was called the Oréanist, bourgeois, or July Monarchy. Different French and European groups had different opinions about the rule. Outside European states and the clergy and legitimists found Louis Philippe too revolutionary. Louis called himself king of the French as opposed to King of France; he flew the French flag instead of the Bourbon lily. The tri-color flag shows the integration of classes. He worked stubbornly to maintain his royal position, in private. In public, he thoroughly followed the constitution.
The constitution remained, for the most part, the same that it had been since 1814. The major change was the abolishment of absolutism. Nevertheless, the reigning prince could revoke constitution guarantees. The Chamber of Peers was no...