IFTIKHAR HUSSAIN CHUGHTAI
Summary of ACADEMIC PAPER Levi Strauss: an international marketing investigation
This Article consists of a research based study on Levi’s, and its strategies for its international business. Todays current situations and relations with countries across the border, motivates the companies to go for international business. So this article tells us that while going for international business, we have two strategies, 1: Standardization (uniform marketing mix)
2: Adaptation (Adjusting Marketing Mix according to local market requirements) Strategies above mentioned, both have supporters, Levitt (1983) supports the uniform Marketing Mix approach. So there is always a confusion in choosing any of the the above mentioned strategy while going for international business. But in reality both strategies can't be applied with confidence , so they both have to go parallel. No one is perfectly suited in any condition. It is therefore suggested that the international marketers should have to search for the right balance between standardisation and adaptation and therefore determine the extent of globalisation in a business and adapt the organisation’s response accordingly. This integration of adaptation and standardisation driving a company towards optimizing performance is extensively researched by Vrontis (2003). Vrontis argues that the level of integration is dependent upon considerations of the relationship between the reasons and elements identified and an understanding of how these are affected by a number of factors. Levi’s identified factors which determine whether the marketing mix can be standardised for all customers in the jeans market or whether it needs to be adapted to suit specific market conditions. These include socio-cultural, legal/political, physical environmental, technological, demographic, competition and economic factors. This case study has assessed both of these marketing mix strategies for...