Thirty Years War

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In 1617, the Bohemian Diet elected Ferdinand of Styria as king of Bohemia. Ferdinand, who was a member of the Hapsburg family, became the Holy Roman Emperor two years later as Ferdinand II. The election of Ferdinand alarmed Bohemian Calvinists who feared the loss of their religious rights they rightfully owned. In May of 1618, two Catholics of the Bohemian royal council were thrown of from a window by Calvinist rebels and put Frederick V in power of Bohemia. This incident became known as the Defenestration of Prague which started the Thirty Years' War. Emperor Ferdinand II along with Maxilmilian I of Bravaria invaded Bohemia. Their combined forces defeated Frederick V at the Battle of White Mountain. Frederick later fled to Holland. Emperor Ferdinand II regained the throne of Bohemia and the Bohemian phase of the Thirty Years' War thus ended with a Catholic and Hapsburg victory. Following the Catholic victory came the Danish intervention. The Danish Period began when Christian IV of Denmark led an army against the Holy Roman Empire, helping the Germans. He profited greatly from his policies in northern Germany. Christian IV did remarkably well as king, obtaining a level of stability and wealth that was unmatched elsewhere in Europe. Ironically, Bavaria was the only country comparable to Denmark's strong financial position. Considering Ferdinand II as a threat to Denmark, Christian invaded Bavaria with 20,000 men. Once again, Ferdinand had the military help of Wallenstien and Tilly who annihilated Christians army. Christians allies who were England, France and Sweden were either weak or in a war. At the Battle of the Bridge of Dessau, the Danish Army was defeated half of its men were killed. Defeated, Christian IV abandoned his support for Protestants in the Treaty of Lubeck in order to keep his control over Denmark. Two years later, Catholic powers took of the land. With the Catholic victory once again, the Protestants were alarmed throughout Europe. The...
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