13 Days and the Cold War
The movie 13 days describes the actual events that happened during the Cuban missile crisis of 1962. It was the first time during the Cold War that United States and the Soviet Union nearly engaged in full-scale nuclear war. The president of the United States at the time was John F. Kennedy (Bruce Greenwood). He had to immediately decide the most effective way of action for the country after seeing pictures from a U-2 spy plane showing missiles in Cuba placed by the Soviet Union capable of destroying massive areas of the country. With the help of special assistant Kenny O’Donnell (Kevin Costner) and attorney General, also Brother Robert F. Kennedy (Kevin Costner), the President must avoid bad decisions that could lead to a war with the Soviets since it involved nuclear weapons and that would also prevent them from invading Berlin. Another important character during the event is the Chief of staff of the USAF General Curtis LeMay (Kevin Conway) who would prefer to take immediate action and invade Cuba rather than finding a warless solution. The movie focuses on the meetings and discussions held in the White House where the President took some time to finally announce the conflict that developed a widespread panic in the country. The secretary of Defense Robert McNamara (Dylan Baker) and Ambassador of the United States to the UN Adlai Stevenson played critical roles during that period by showing pictures of the missiles at the UN meeting when the tension of a war started rising. The first step that the United States took in response to the pictures of the missiles is ordering the U.S Naval forces to stop all the ships entering Cuban waters and checking if they were carrying any weapons. In response to the blockade done by the U.S, the Soviets wanted the U.S to publically announce that they will never invade Cuba. Later on, a second condition is proposed by the soviets that deal with the U.S removing its Jupiter missiles from Turkey. Since the Cold War was a tight competition between the two powers, the United States decided to ignore the second condition proposed by the Soviet Union and try to conclude the deal with the first condition only. In the meantime, different actions are done without informing the President such as the U.S offensive missile. Furthermore, the President’s Brother Robert F. Kennedy was assigned to finish the deal at the soviet embassy by accepting that the United States will never invade Cuba and he also accepted the second condition which consists of removing all Jupiter missiles from Turkey but his condition was to keep it a secret agreement between the two powers and not announced publically. On the other hand, Robert F. Kennedy wanted the Soviet Union to remove the missiles in Cuba. To best understand how the two powers came to the stage of the Cuban Missiles of 1962, an explanation of the development and progress of the Cold War is necessary. First of all, what need to be said about it is that, it is a war that was fought through ideas and political means rather than military intervention. The tension started after the success of the two powers with a temporary alliance to breakdown the Nazi Germany, leaving them with political differences that turned into a competition of who is going to rule the world politically and economically. At the end World War II in 1945, the Soviets occupied Eastern Europe by directly occupying countries like Poland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Eastern Finland and Eastern Romania as Soviet Socialist Republics, introducing Communism and the United States along with allies such as Britain, France occupied West Europe supporting Capitalism with Berlin as the middle point. At the Potsdam Conference, Harry S. Truman, the President of the United States in that period and Joseph Stalin as the Premier of the Soviet Union started to have very different views about the future development of Germany and Eastern Europe and that is...
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