Thirteen Colonies and New England

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Textual Reading Guide for Module 1

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The Literature of Early America p. 1-5
1. The first Europeans to establish settlements on this continent did not call it America until the 18th century. What did these early settlers call it? The New World 2. The colonies that became the United States were - for the most part - inhabited by individuals from which European country? England 3. How much is known of the perspectives of the native inhabitants of this continent before the European arrival? Why? With the help of archaeologist, ethnographical, and oral materials much has been learned 4. What was the so-called Columbian Exchange, and what were the results? The passing of biological matter between Native Americans and Europeans. The result is illness and death reduced to less than 10% of the original number 5. Although Leif Ericson first saw North America as early as 1000, and Columbus, of course, arrived in 1492, when did French and English colonization really begin to take hold? Early 1600s 6. After the Native American oral tradition, which writing could probably be considered the first "American" literature? American Literature 7. What three things set the stage for the seventeenth-century expansion of English colonization that would ultimately lead to the first United States? 1)The Reformation 2)English defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 3)emerging capitalist economies

8. Unlike the Spanish explorers who were financially supported by royalty, how were the English settlers supported? How did this affect the future of the colonies? English settlers were supported by banks & joint-stock companies. It moved it away from the old hierarchies of church & crown 9. What were the three general cultural/economic groups established in these early British colonies? Southern Colonies, Middle Colonies, New England 10. Which area was initially the most difficult to settle and why? Southern Colony-malaria and starvation were...
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