Thinking

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THINKING

A PROJECT REPORT

Submitted by
SHUBHANGI JAGDEV
11 ARTS
PSYCHOLOGY

THE INDIAN HIGH SCHOOL
JANUARY
2012

THE INDIAN HIGH SCHOOL, DUBAI

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this project report “……….THINKING……………..” is the bonafide work of “…………..SHUBHANGI JAGDEV.…………” who carried out the project work under my supervision.

SIGNATURE

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Contents
1.INTRODUCTION5
2.NATURE OF THINKING5
3.BUILDING BLOCKS OF THOUGHT6
4.TRAINING AND LEARNING STYLES8
5.CONCEPTS9
6.OBSATCLES TO PROBLEM SOLVING10
6.1MENTAL SET10
6.2LACK OF MOTIVATION11
7.REASONING12
7.1DEDUCTIVE REASONING12
7.1.1DEDUCTIVE LOGIC: VALIDITY AND SOUNDNESS13
7.1.2HUME’S SKEPTICISM14
7.1.3DEDUCTIVE REASONING AND EDUCATION14
7.2INDUCTIVE REASONING15
7.2.1DESCRIPTION15
7.2.2INDUCTIVE VS DEDUCTIVE REASONING15
7.2.3DECISION MAKING16
7.2.3.1EVERYDAY TECHNIQUES16
7.2.3.2DECISION MAKING STAGES17
7.2.3.3DECISION MAKING STEPS18
8.CREATIVE THINKING19
8.1CONVERGENT THINKING19
8.2DIVERGENT THINKING20
8.2.1Convergent versus divergent Personality20
8.3LATERAL THINKING22
8.3.1METHODS23
8.3.2LATERAL THINKING AND PROBLEM SOLVING24
8.3.3EDUCATION25
8.4PROCESS OF CREATIVE THINKING25
8.4.1BARRIERS TO CREATIVE THINKING26
8.4.2STRATEGIES FOR CREATIVE THINKING27
9.THOUGHT AND LANGUAGE29
9.1Social Language Use (Pragmatics)29
9.2Bilingualism and multilingualism30
9.3.1MULTILINGUAL INDIVIDUALS31
9.3.2LEARNING LANGUAGE32

1. INTRODUCTION

Thinking allows beings to make sense of or model the world in different ways, and to represent or interpret it in ways that are significant to them, or which accord with their needs, attachments, objectives, plans, commitments, ends and desires. It is a mental process which allows beings to model the world, and so to deal with it effectively according to their goals, plans, ends, and desires. Thinking is a higher cognitive function and the analysis of thinking processes is part of cognitive psychology.

Figure 1: This figure represents the thinking of a man and a dog. Passing through learning to retention and then to ‘’thinking’’ is a logical sequence. A logical sequence indeed, because of what we think of, must be learned and retained. We think it with symbols, which represent past experience – may be in the form of words, gestures or images. All these are the tools of our thought processes. Man has been characterized as the doer, i.e. he does something. Man senses the objects of the world around him, organizes and interprets the sensory input in a meaningful whole (perceives), learns to manipulate and develops abilities to respond effectively and correctly to the environment (learns), stories and retains the learned abilities or acquired experiences so that he may use them in future whenever required. But over and above, man also thinks and reasons. Owing to this ability, man is sharply differentiated from the other lower animals in the hierarchy. Man is primarily characterized not only as ‘’doer’’ but also as ‘’thinker’’. Aristotle defines man as a ‘’rational being’’. 2. NATURE OF THINKING

Thinking is a most important and complex process of cognition. In fact, thinking in some way or the other is the main determinant of all our behaviours. It is a behavioural process much like perception, learning, and remembering. It is not only much like other processes (named above) but also closely interrelated. It’s similarity to learning and other processes lies in the fact that a thoughtful person attempts to solve a problem to which he confronts with and finds that the usual patterns of behaviours do not work well in solving the problem effectively because of certain kinds of changes in the situation. He then becomes overtly inactive, quiet, and calm and begins...
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