Thin Film Solar Cell

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Abstract:
Solar energy is quite simply the energy produced directly from the sun and collected elsewhere, namely the Earth. Photovoltaic technology directly converts solar energy into electricity. Photovoltaic thin film solar cells are easy to handle , inexpensive and also easy to use. Thin film panel is flexible and can tolerate a bullet hole without failing and can greatly increase the surface area and the absorption coefficient needed to generate electricity. This paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the thin- film solar cell and also describe its application and how its work. Introduction:

The solar cell is the latest technology around the world. The solar cell is also called a renewable energy source, because the capture the sunlight and convert it into the electrical energy. There are different types of solar cells, but the most important one is a thin- film solar cell. It is cost effective and its efficiency is greater than the other types of solar cells like thin film dye sanitized solar cell . Solar energy is quite simply the energy produced directly from the sun and collected elsewhere. All solar cells are made of silicon. Thin- Film Photovoltaic technology directly converts solar energy into electricity. Solar cells are made out of semiconducting material, usually silicon. The process of making a solar cell begins with taking a slice of highly purified silicon crystal, and then processing it through several stages involving gradual heating and cooling. Solar cells are based on semiconductor physics -- they are essentially just a P-N junction photo-diodes with a very large light-sensitive area. Another common material for thin- film cells include Gallium Aarsenide (GaAs), Copper Indium Gallium Selenide, and gallium Phosphide. The most common types of photovoltaic cells are single-junction, multi-junction, and thin-film. A thin film panel is flexible and can tolerate a bullet hole without failing and can greatly increase the surface area and the absorption coefficient needed to generate electricity. Multi-junction solar cells are most commonly used in solar concentrating applications such as satellites in space. Today we use solar power to do many things. We use solar power for everything from calculators to large power plants that can power large cities. The most common applications for solar panels are used for small devices. The Solar cell technology research is continuing to create low-cost high-efficiency elements and the latest approaches in solar cell designs. Some countries do not have oil or do not have enough political and economic power to buy it or to produce it, but they receive more sunlight than others. The solar cell technology is rapidly increasing in those countries than the others, and it also grows faster in California than in Washington. Polycrystalline thin-film solar cells are based on those compounds which have the efficiencies up to 19.2%. Nowadays, it is increased by 20.4%. The Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science and Technology has recently developed a new thin-film solar cell with an efficiency of 20.4%. Those cells are based on CIGS (copper indium gallium (DI) selenide) semiconductor material. The band gap on the top of the solar cell around 1.6-1.8 EV. The thin-film solar cells should be design by single-junction and also two- junction devices commonly used CIGS and CdZnTe. There are four different types of thin-film solar cell. 1. Amorphous silicon (a-Si)

2. Cadmium telluride (CdTe)
3. Copper indium gallium selenide (CIS/CIGS)
4. Organic photovoltaic cells (OPC)

How Thin-Film Solar Cell Works:
Thin-film solar cells are also called new generation of solar cell. This cell contains multiple layers of PV material. This new generation solar cells produce over 3700 megawatts of electrical energy in 2010. The main difference between the structure of normal silicon solar cells and thin film silicon solar cell is the thin flexible...
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