1. To verify the Thevenin’s theorem through an experiment. 2. To find the Thevenin’s resistance RTH by various methods and compare values.
Equipment:
Resistors, DMM, breadboard, DC power supply, and connecting wires.
Theory:
Thevenin theorem states that any linear twoterminal circuit can be replaced by an equivalent circuit consisting of a voltage source VTH in series with a resistance RTH where
* VTH is the opencircuit voltage at the terminals, and
* RTH is the equivalent resistance seen thru the terminals provided that all the independent sources are turned off.
Finding VTH:
Determining the output voltage Vab in opencircuit condition (no load resistor meaning infinite resistance). This is known as the Thevenin voltage VTH. * i.e. VTH = Vab = VOC (opencircuit voltage)
Finding RTH:
There are different methods to find value of RTH as described below.
1. Method A:
(By measuring ISC – shortcircuit current)

Short the points ‘a’ and ‘b’, then measure the shortcircuit current Isc using an ammeter. Calculator RTH as follows
RTH = VTH/ ISC
Method 2:
(By measuring the equivalent resistance)
Remove all sources from the circuit, i.e. replace all voltage sources with a shortcircuit and current sources with an opencircuit. Then with the help of a multimeter find the resistance between the points ‘a’ and ‘b’, denoted by Req.
RTH = Req
Method 3:
(By applying known voltage and measuring source current).
We can also find RTH by applying a known voltage to the circuit between points ‘a’ and ‘b’, then measuring the current from the voltage source. Suppose 1 Vdc is applied as the test voltage then,
RTH = Vtest / I
4. Method 4:
(By inserting two different resistors and measuring current) There is another method to find the value of RTH, by inserting two different loads between points ‘a’ and ‘b’ i.e....
...Introduction
This experiment focuses on two concepts. These concepts are Proportionality and Superposition theorems.
Proportionality is a way to relate two quantities together. This means that when more input is supplied, you get more output which is proportional to the input.
The Proportionality Theorem states that the response in a circuit is proportional to the source acting in the circuit. This is also known as Linearity. The proportionality constant (K) relates the input voltage to the output voltages as
Superposition is another way to solve a linear electrical circuit.
The Superposition Theorem states that in any linear electrical circuit, any voltage or current value can be obtained by taking the individual contributions to that voltage or current as a result of each source taken alone and summing them together
Aim
The aim of this experiment is to verify the proportionality and superposition theorems.
Apparatus
Breadboard
Wires
Multimeter
IDL 600 analogue lab
Assorted resistors(1kΩ, 3.3kΩ, 2.2kΩ)
Procedure
I constructed the first circuit as shown in fig1 using the breadboard, four wires and three resistors as shown in the diagram below.
I connected my power source and took down the values of the output voltage across the 3.3kΩ resistor for five different input voltages.
I constructed the second circuit in fig 2 below using a breadboard, wires and three...
...Scenario: You work at the Paris branch of Ryder Wholesale Medical Supplies Ltd, 90100 rue de la Pompe, 75004 Paris. Your Office Manager is Jules Laval. “Several companies today incentives usually financial rewards to members of staff who come up with moneysaving ideas or ways to improve work practices,” says Jules Laval. “I was wondering if any of our workers would be interested in such a scheme. Would you speak to a sample of them about it and find out their opsand then write a report for me? Any information or suggestions about this proposed scheme would be welcome.” Proposed Incentive Scheme Terms of reference Mr Jules Laval, Office Manager, has asked me to write this report on a proposed incentive scheme offering rewards, possibly financial, to members of staff for moneysaving or ways to improve work practices.
Proceedings
A sample of workers were questioned individually and asked for their opinions.
Findings
Most workers thought an incentive scheme was a good idea.
The majority of these preferred financial reward as an incentive.
Some workers suggested time off instead.
A few thought it was the job of management to come up with new ideas
Conclusions
In general most workers were in favour of an incentive scheme offering financial rewards.
Ⅰ
Brief Introduction
（
20 minutes
）
1.
Business English Writing: ESP: English for special purpose
EVP: English for...
...Thevenin Theorem
It provides a mathematical technique for replacing for a given network, as viewed from two output terminals by a single voltage source with a series resistance. It makes the solution of complicated networks (particularly, electronic networks) quite quick and easy.
The Thevenin’stheorem, as applied to d.c. circuits, may be stated as under:
The current flowing through a load resistance RL connected across any two terminals A and B of a linear, active bilateral network is given by VOC  (Ri + RL) where VOC is the opencircuit voltage (i.e. voltage across the two terminals when RL is removed) and Ri is the internal resistance of the network as viewed back into the opencircuited network from terminals A and B with all voltage sources replaced by their internal resistance (if any) and current sources by infinite resistance.
How to Thevenize a given circuit?
1. Temporarily remove the resistance (called load resistance RL) whose current is required.
2. Find an opencircuit voltage VOC which appears across the two terminals from where resistance has been removed. It is also called the Thevenin voltage Vth.
3. Compute the resistance of the whose network as looked into from these two terminals after all voltage sources have been removed by living behind their internal resistances (if any) and current sources have been replaced by opencircuit i.e. infinite resistance. It is also called Thevenin resistance Rth or...
...Application
There are some applications of Thevenin’sTheorem in our daily lives. Thevenin’sTheorem is very useful to reduce a network with several voltage sources and resistors to an equivalent circuit composed a single voltage source and a single resistance connected to a load only. It is used in simplifying and analysing complex linear networks power systems and circuits where one particular where a particular load resistor, RL in the circuit is subject to change, and recalculation of the circuit is necessary with each trial value of load resistance to determine voltage across it and current through it. This show that Thevenin’stheorem is important to apply in analysing DC circuits so that we no need to analyse the circuits all over again when got a variable load.
Source modelling is also important application of Thevenin’sTheorem. An active source such as a battery is often characterized by its Thevenin equivalent circuit. An ideal voltage source provides a constant voltage irrespective of the current drawn by the load, while an ideal current source supplies a constant current regardless of the load voltage. Internal resistances and source resistances cause practical voltage and current sources not ideal. The load voltage will approach a source voltage, Vs as RL increase. The closer the voltage source get to be ideal as if the internal resistance, RS of...
...Identify the stakeholders of the constellation in the diagram.
Supply Segment
Subcontractors
Production
Enterprises
Customers
Suppliers
Production Enterprises
ZARA is the flagship brand under the Indetex Group, which is known worldwide by its fast fashion products. Their core competitive strategy is developing the new product and getting it to stores within 15 days. The uniqueprocessing model ensures ZARA occupied the market advantage among the fashion industry.
Subcontractors
Although ZARA manufacture approximately half of its products in their own factories, they use subcontractors for all sewing operations. These factories are managed as independent profit centers. There are about 500 sewing subcontractors close to La Coruña, and they work exclusively for ZARA. Under the closely monitors and sampling methodology controls by ZARA, the products quality can be guaranteed.
Suppliers
The remaining half of ZARA products are produced from 400 outside suppliers, 70% of which are in Europe, and most of the rest in Asia. Since the majority of suppliers are in Europe and many of them are based in Spain and Portugal, ZARA takes this geographical advantage to respond the orders in short time, which ensures its fast fashion products.
Social Segment
Government
ZARA responds to government’s call actively, participating in social investment with collaborating organizations on community development, sponsorship and patronage. The...
...Laboratory Report Bernoulli’s Theorem
Lubna Khan, BEng Architectural Engineering
Student ID No.: H00113999
Addressed to: Dr. Mehdi Nazirinia
Date: 22/12/2012
Lab Experiment held on: 28/11/2012
Table of Contents
Summary/Abstract Page 3
1.1. Introduction Page 4
1.2. Objective Page 5
2. Theory Page 5
2.1. Theoretical Background Page 5
2.1.1. Sample Calculations: Page 8
2.1.1.1. First experiment Page 8
3. Equipment Page 10
3.1. Preparing the Apparatus Page 10
3.2. Technical Data Page 11
4. Test Procedure Page 12
4.1. Bernoulli’s Theorem Test Page 12
5. Results and Discussions Page 12
5.1. Data Sheet Page 13
5.1.1. First Experiment Page 13
5.1.2. Second Experiment Page 13
5.1.3. Third Experiment Page 14
5.2.1. VelocityHead Graph Page 14
5.2.2. Diff. between Mea. and The. PressureHead Graph Page 16
5.2.3. Total Head Loss Graph Page 17
5.2.4. Total Pressure Head Graph Page 18
Conclusion Page 19
References Page 21
Summary/Abstract:
The main objective of this experiment is to verify the Bernoulli Equation using a Venturi meter which is a convergingdiverging tube of known geometry which is attached to a pipeline to help measure different quantities of...
... and then apply KVL around each mesh and supermesh.
Superposition Theorem
Superposition Theorem states that the response in a linear circuit with multiple
sources can be obtained by adding the individual responses caused by the separate independent sources acting alone.
For an independent source acting alone, all other independent voltage sources are replaced by short circuits and all other independent current sources are replaced by open circuits.
* Used to find the solution to networks with two or more sources that are not in series or parallel.
* The current through, or voltage across, an element in a network is equal to the algebraic sum of the currents or voltages produced independently by each source.
* Since the effect of each source will be determined independently, the number of networks to be analyzed will equal the number of sources.
Thevenin’sTheoremThevenin’stheorem implies that we can replace arbitrarily complicated networks with simple networks for purposes of analysis
Thevenin’stheorem can be used to:
* Analyze networks with sources that are not in series or parallel.
* Reduce the number of components required to establish the same characteristics at the output terminals.
* Investigate the effect of changing a particular component on the behavior of a network without having to analyze the entire network...
...Ministry of Lands and Mineral Resources
Mineral Resources Department
Hydrogeological and Geophysical Investigation
Technical Report
of
Naqali Village
Naitasiri
Saiyad Saheem
April 2014
Table of Contents
Background…………………………………………………………………………………………
Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………..
Objective……………………………………………………………………………………………
Methodology………………………………………………………………………………………
Literature Review…………………………………………………………………………………
Results………………………………………………………………………………………………
Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………………
Recommendation…………………………………………………………………………………
Reference…………………………………………………………………………………………
List of Table
Table 1: Water chemistry result ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
List of Figures
Figure 1: Locality map....................................................................................................................
Figure 2: Topographical map ........................................................................................................
Figure 3: Geological map..............................................................................................................
Figure 4: Hydrogeological map…………………………………………………………………
Figure 5: Rainfall distribution map .................................................................................................
Figure 6 Google...