THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
The Philippines is primarily an agricultural country. Most of the citizens that still live in rural areas support themselves through agriculture. One of the four sub-sectors of agriculture is farming. Farming is one of the common forms of livelihood in the county.
The rate of the crops produced here in the country shrank as of 1999 according to the Encyclopedia of Nations. One of the main reasons is the industrialization of farms. The farmers find it hard to establish large rate of growth because of the insufficient funds of the government to invest for the new devices, methods, and products that may help them secure their lives with farming.
The current industrial agriculture system promotes the reliance on agrochemicals, both synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, while neglecting to consider their negative effects on the economy of local communities, human health and the environment. The widespread use of irrigation, agrochemicals and new seeds have largely increased agriculture production, but this model of agricultural growth is flawed because of declining crop yields and massive environmental impacts. According to the recent Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) data, between 1961 and 2005 fertilizer applications in the Philippines increased by 1000%, while yields of rice and maize increased only by 200% and 280% respectively, and the yield of pulses remained about the same. From 1977 to 1987 pesticide use increased by 325%, while rice yield increased by only 30%. Pesticide imports have continued to increase, while rice and corn yields have increased at a much smaller rate. In general, the excessive and inappropriate use of chemical fertilizers in crop soils cause land degradation and losses in soil fertility worldwide. Moreover, agrochemicals cause water pollution that directly and indirectly affects human health. According to the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA), 37% of the total water pollution originates from agricultural practices, which include animal waste and fertilizer and pesticide runoff. Water pollution from nitrates derived from fertilizer runoff is more widespread in the Philippines than previously thought. Prior to the 1970s, the use of pesticides in Philippines was mainly concentrated in plantation crops. Small farms started to use pesticides intensely in the early 1970s. During the period from 1972 to 1978 the import of pesticides in the Philippines grew some 500% (Mariano, 1999, Loevinsohn and Rola, 1998). The researchers formulated an organic pesticide which cannot affect the growth and the rate of production of crops. Pechay, scientifically known as Brassica rapa, is a common crop found in homes of most Filipinos. Though the pechay has a large number of produce in the country, farmers extract their time and effort to make large growth rate of pechay. They need to use pesticides and synthetic fertilizers for the growth of the crop. Another problem of the farmers aside to those is the pests inhabiting their plants in the field and the financial need to spend in farming. This is the idea why the researchers thought of making a study regarding an organic pesticide that is cheap, and highly effective in killing pests.
Since a common plant called utot ni hudas or baho – baho was found by the researchers to be a potential organic pesticide because of its toxin, the researchers thought of using this as a material for the study. The study was to know the effects of the baho-baho (Lantana camara) as an organic pesticide to the pechay plant.
Statement of the Problem
The study was conducted to know the potential of the baho-baho (Lantana camara) as an organic pesticide to the pechay (Brassica rapa) plant. Specifically, this study sought to provide answers to the following problems. 1. Is there any significant difference between the use of commercial pesticide and the...