Thesis on Remote Control Lighting System (Chapter Ii and Chapter Iii)

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Chapter II

THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

This portion of the chapter presents the review of related literature and studies linked with remote controlled lighting system which will provide necessary background on the subject of the present study.

The related literature was taken from articles on published journals, and electronic materials while related studies were taken from the manufacturer’s overview of the related prototypes.

Review of Related Literature and Studies

Lighting is the deliberate application of light to achieve some aesthetic or practical effect. Lighting includes use of both artificial light sources such as lamps and natural illumination of interiors from daylight. Daylighting (through windows, skylights, etc) is often used as the main source of light during daytime in buildings given its low cost. Artificial lighting represents a major component of energy consumption, accounting for a significant part of all energy consumed worldwide. Artificial lighting is most commonly provided today by electric lights, butgas lighting, candles, or oil lamps were used in the past, and still are in situation situations. Proper lighting can enhance task performance or aesthetics, while there can be energy wastage and adverse health effects of poorly designed lighting. Indoor lighting is a form of fixture or furnishing, and a key part of interior design. Lighting can also be an intrinsic component of landscaping.

Energy efficient lighting uses a comprehensive approach to lighting and lighting upgrades. It involves a combination of strategies such as relying on more natural daylight, using energy efficient light bulbs that operate at a lower wattage, improving lighting controls, adjusting light to appropriate task levels and performing regular, basic maintenance on light fixtures to keep them running longer.

Dimming controls reduce the output and energy consumption of light sources. Compared to on-off controls, they can increase energy savings, better align lighting with human needs, and extend lamp life. Unfortunately, they also add complexity and expense and may shorten lamp life under some conditions. They should be carefully compared to simpler systems that may also produce the desired results.

A variety of dimming technologies give the designer or retrofitter options which include “Manual Dimmers” that are available for incandescent, fluorescent, and certain high-intensity discharge (HID) sources. Both step and continuous dimming are available for incandescents. Multiple dimming methods are available for both fluorescents and HIDs, though HID dimming is limited by color rendition and flicker problems. Another one is “Photosensor-Activated Dimmers” in which daylighting control may be the most important dimming technique. It matches the available natural daylight and lighting system output to produce consistent illuminance. Electronic or other dimming ballasts allow for control of the light level. These systems require carefully integration of control systems and sensors. Another dimming technique is the use of “Programmable Dimmers” in which lighting output is adjusted to predetermined levels set by the user.

In Incandescent Dimming, the familiar 3-way lamp is the most popular manual, step-dimming product. It provides three discrete reductions in light output. Continuous dimmers reduce energy consumption without visible flicker; the filament runs cooler, reducing color temperature and making spaces appear more yellow. Wattage does not drop linearly with light output, resulting in reduced efficacy at dimmed settings. Lamp life is usually increased in standard lamps, but may be reduced in halogen lamps. The rapid cycling of dimmed incandescent lamps may create a high-pitched hiss audible in quiet locations.

In Fluorescent Dimming, dimming can be achieved for nearly all fluorescent systems, whether magnetic or electronic, rapid- or instant-start, and ”dimmable” or "nondimmable."...
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