CHAPTER – I
Background of the Study
To start with, performance in terms of profitability is a benchmark for any business enterprise including the banking industry. Extension of credit is one of the major activities of banks and financial institution. Credit represents the bulk of the bank and financial institution’s asset portfolio. However, increasing NPAs have a direct impact on banks profitability as legally banks are not allowed to book income on such accounts and at the same time banks are forced to make provision on such assets as per the central Bank guidelines. Also, with increasing deposits made by the public in the banking system, the banking industry cannot afford defaults by borrower s since NPAs affects the repayment capacity of banks. Further, central Bank successfully creates excess liquidity in the system through various rate cuts and banks fail to utilize this benefit to its advantage due to the fear of burgeoning non-performing assets.
Economic development is the foundation development of any country. Economic development is supported by the financial infrastructure of that country. Financial institution constitutes an important part of the financial infrastructure. The main function of the bank is the collection of idle funds and mobilizes them to productive sector causing overall economic development, which finally leads to national development of the country. Bank pools the fund through deposit and mobilize them to productive sector in the form of loans and advances. Bank is the financial institution which deals with money by accepting by accepting various types of deposits, disbursing loan and rendering various types of financial services. It is the intermediary between the deficit and surplus of financial sources.
It cannot be denied that the issue of development rest upon the mobilization of resources and the bank deals in process of channelising the available resources in the needed sectors. Commercial bank collects deposits from the public and the largest portion of deposited funds is utilized by disbursing loan and advances. The balance sheet of a commercial bank reflects deposit constitutes a major portion of the liabilities and the loan and advances constitutes a major portion of the asset side. Similarly the profit of the bank depends upon the spreads that it enjoys between the interest it receive from the borrowers and that to be paid to the depositors. An average bank generates about 70% of its revenue through its lending. The return that the bank enjoys of deposit mobilization through loan and advances is very attractive but they do not come free of cost and free of risk. There is risk in lending. The bank faces number of risk like interest rate risk, liquidity risk, credit risk, borrower risk etc.. Such risk in excessive form had led many banks to go bankrupt in number of countries.
Amongst many risk that bank faces one of the most critical is borrower risk – the risk of non payment of the disbursed loans. Failure to collect fund disbursed may sometimes results in the bank’s inability to make repayment of the money to depositors and return to the shareholders. The bankers have the responsibility of safeguarding the interest of the depositors, shareholder and society they are serving. If bank behaves unresponsively the cost born by the economy is enormous. Banking sector is volatile and sensitive sectors of national economy, which require effective monitoring and efficient supervision. Smooth and effective operation of banking activities is most for sustainable economic growth of a country. The regulatory agency should always be watchful of banking activities carried out by government and non governmental banking and financial institution.
In the distant past, banks had to deal with only few cases of bad-loans. So, they used to take legal actions against chronic defaulters of bank-loans. For the last ten/twelve years, banks are suffering from a large...
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