Only available on StudyMode
  • Download(s) : 342
  • Published : June 20, 2011
Open Document
Text Preview
Migration Theory – Henry Otley Beyer (American Anthropology)

According to social scientist Henry Otley Beyer believes that Filipinos descended from different groups that came from Southeast Asia in successive waves of migration. Each group had a distinct culture, with its own customs and traditions.

• The first migrants were what Beyer caked the “Dawnmen” (or “cavemen” because they lived in caves.). The Dawnmen resembled Java Man, Peking Man, and other Asian Home sapiens who existed about 250,000 years ago. They did not have any knowledge of agriculture, and lived by hunting and fishing. It was precisely in search of food that they came to the Philippines by way of the land bridges that connected the Philippines and Indonesia. Owing perhaps to their migratory nature, they eventually left the Philippines for destinations unknown. • The second group of migrants was composed of dark-skinned pygmies called “Aetas’ or “Negritoes”. About 30,000 years ago, they crossed the land bridged from Malaya, Borneo, and Australia until they reached Palawan, Mindoro and Mindanao. They were pygmies who went around practically naked and were good at hunting, fishing and food gathering. They used spears and small flint stones weapons. The Aetas were already in the Philippines when the land bridges disappeared due to the thinning of the ice glaciers and the subsequent increase in seawater level. This natural event “forced” them to remain in the country and become its first permanent inhabitants. Because of the disappearance of the land bridges, the third wave of migrants was necessarily skilled in seafaring. These were the Indonesians, who came to the islands in boats. They were more advanced than the Aetas in that: they had tools made out of stone and steel, which enabled them to build sturdier houses: they engaged in farming and mining, and used materials made of brass; they wore clothing and other body ornaments. • Last to migrate to the Philippines, according to Beyer, were Malays. They were believed to have come from Java, Sumatra, Borneo, and the Malay Peninsula more than 2,000 years ago. Like the Indonesians, they also traveled in boats.  The Malays were brown-skinned and of medium height, with straight black hair and flat noses. Their technology was said to be more advanced than that of their predecessors. They engaged in pottery, weaving, jewelry making and metal smelting, and introduced the irrigation system in rice planting.

According to Dr. Beyer, the ancestors of the Filipinos came in different "waves of migration", as follows:

1. "Dawn Man", a cave-man type who was similar to Java man, Peking man, and other Asian homo sapiens of 250,000 years ago. 2. The aboriginal pygmy group, the Negritos, who arrived between 25,000 and 30,000 years ago via land bridges. 3. The sea-faring tool-using Indonesian group who arrived about 5,000 to 6,000 years ago and were the first immigrants to reach the Philippines by sea. 4. The seafaring, more civilized Malays who brought the Iron Age culture and were the real colonizers and dominant cultural group in the pre-Hispanic Philippines.

Ferdinand Magellan (1480 – April 27, 1521)
He was a portages explorer, He was born in Sabrosa, in northern Portugal, and served KingCharles I of Spain in search of a westward route to the "Spice Islands" (modern Maluku Islandsin Indonesia). Magellan's expedition of 1519–1522 became the first expedition to sail from the Atlantic Oceaninto the Pacific Ocean (then named "peaceful sea" by Magellan; the passage being made via theStrait of Magellan), and the first to cross the Pacific. It also completed the first circumnavigationof the Earth, although Magellan himself did not complete the entire voyage, being killed during the Battle of Mactan in the Philippines.

Ferdinand learned about the journeys of Vasco da Gama and Christopher Columbus. Later, he went on a Military Expedition that made him limp for the rest of his life....
tracking img