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Impulse Buying & Demographic Characteristics

Abasyn Journal of Social Sciences. Vol.4 No.2

FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEES RETENTION: EVIDENCE FROM LITERATURE Muhammad Irshad 1 Fahad Afridi2 Abstract The article describes the relationship between human resource practices and employees retention in a given organization. The research reviews relevant literature to identify elements of HR practices that influence employee retention. Over the past decade, the way in which people are managed and developed at work has come to be recognized as one of the primary factors in achieving improvement in organizational performance. [Key words: Employees, retention, compensation, rewards, training and organizational justice.] The related literature review of the title unanimously

acknowledges that successful organizations share a fundamental philosophy of creating value and investing in their employees (Maguire, 1995; Annand, 1997) and managing retention of promising employees’ is considered as fundamental mean of achieving competitive advantage among the organizations (walker, 2001). Aliya and Fariduddin (2003) found that the findings tend to prove hypothesis showed that the factors leading to positive and negative attitudes are different. It could also be said that the categories mentioned by the contents analysis and techniques are mostly applicable in our environment. The major drift is seen in low feelings where some categories were added to record the

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Muhammad Irshad, Research Scholar in MS Management, Qurtuba University, Peshawar, Pakistan. E.Mail: mikhaans@gmail.com 2 Fahad Afridi, PhD Research Scholar, Abasyn University Peshawar & Lecturer in Islamia College University, Peshawar, Pakistan. E.Mail: hhmdpk@yahoo.com

Muhammad Irshad &Fahad Afridi

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Impulse Buying & Demographic Characteristics

Abasyn Journal of Social Sciences. Vol.4 No.2

responses. Only one part of the original research has been replicated for the study; the extension of this study might also possible if the responses could be coded as the sequences mentioned in the original research. The study makes an original contribution to the study of retention among Pakistani professionals. It is hoped that it will lead to similar work in future, particularly with respect to research areas identified herein. Kehr (2004), explains that the implicit retention factors are spontaneous, expressive and pleasurable behavior and can be divided into three variables: ‘power’ achievement and affiliation. Power refers to dominance and social control. ‘Achievement’ is when personal standards of excellence are to be met or exceeded and affiliation refers to social relationships which are established and intensified. Implicit and explicit retention factors relate to different aspects of the person, but both are important determinants of behavior. Previous researches suggested several factors which play pivotal role in employee retention, Cappelli (2000). The factors which are considered and have direct affect are: career opportunities, work environment, work life balance, organizational justice, and existing leave policy and organization image. Employees stay loyal with such organizations where employees have value, sense of pride and work to their full potential, Cole (2000). The reasons for staying employees in organization are organization reward system, growth and development, pay package and work life balance. Employees retaining is the most imperative target for the organization because hiring of qualified candidate is essential for organization but their retention is more important than hiring, because a huge amount is spending on the orientation and training of the potential employees. Research founds that the cost of replacing of old employees Muhammad Irshad &Fahad Afridi

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Impulse Buying & Demographic Characteristics

Abasyn Journal of Social Sciences. Vol.4 No.2

with new ones is estimated up to twice the employee’s annual salary. When...
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