Submitted in partial fulfillment of the
Requirements in English IV
San Juan National High School
San Juan, La Union
Mrs. Cleofe O. Normand
Table of Contents
Statement of the Problem3
Significance of the study3
Scope and Delimitation3
Definition of Terms4
I. Causes of Malnutrition5
II. Ways to Prevent Malnutrition6
III. Strategies to Detect and Prevent Malnutrition in the Elderly7
IV. Government Projects to Solve Malnutrition10
V. Sign and Symptoms of Malnutrition11
VI. Forms of Malnutrition12
Malnutrition is a dietary condition caused by a deficiency or excess of one or more essential nutrients in the diet. Malnutrition is characterized by a wide array of health problems, including extreme weight loss, stunted growth, weakened resistance to infection, and impairment of intellect. Severe case of malnutrition can lead to death.
Children suffer from the effects of starvation more quickly than adults. According to the United Nations children’s Fund (UNICEF), malnutrition contributed to the deaths of more than 6 million children under age five each year. Typically, starving children develop a condition called protein-energy malnutrition (PEM). The two most common forms of PEM, marasmus and kwashiorkor, occur in all developing countries and are life-threatening conditions; Marasmus occurs when a child is weaned earlier that normal and receiver food low in nutrients. The child may also suffer repeated infections, such as gastroenteritis, due to poor hygiene. A child with marasmus is very underweight, with no body fat and wasted muscles. Kwashiorkor occurs when a child is weaned later that normal and receives starchy foods low in protein. In this disease, the child’s abnormally low body weight is often masked by water retention, which makes the face moon-shaped and the belly swollen.
Deficiency diseases are usually associated with lack of vitamins or minerals. The effects of a vitamin or mineral deficiency on the body depend on the function of the particular nutrient lacking. For example, Vitamin A is important for good vision, and severe deficiency on this vitamin may cause blindness. Because some vitamins and minerals have many functions, prolonged nutritional deficiencies can therefore have wide-ranging on health.
Diets that lack a wide variety of floods may result in vitamin deficiency diseases. For example, in countries where people eat maize as the staple food and only few other foods, diets may lack niacin, a B vitamin. Such diets may cause pellagra, a deficiency disease characterized by dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia. Some people find it difficult to meet their nutritional requirements for example, women, due to their menstrual cycle, have a higher requirement for iron that do men, if their iron requirement is not met, women may develop anemia. Geographic factors can play a role in nutritional deficiencies. In some remote areas where the soils contain little iodine, the plants that grow there also contain little iodine. Since few foods contain significant amounts of iodine, people living in these areas may suffer prolonged iodine deficiency, resulting in disorders of the thyroid gland. In developed countries inadequate consumption of calories and protein is common in the elderly and in people with certain diseases, such as anorexia nervosa. However, the most common form of malnutrition is development nations is over nutrition, which can lead to obesity. Obesity increases the risk of many diseases, including heart disease, diabetes and arthritis. Effects:
This is one of the most common effects of malnutrition. In developing...