These are notes from a Industrial/Organizational Psychology class including many key factors for a general understanding of I/O psychology.

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Chapter 1

I/O psychology

-application of psychological principles to business and industry

-professional practical approach

First force


-looked at workplaces of people (studied telegraphers work)

-wanted not studying problems of industry but examining real skills as base to develop scientific psychology

2nd force


-Time and Motion studies- studying elements of human motion ("therbligs")

-to improve efficiency (desire of industrial engineers) and skills in the job

Walter Dill Scott

-power of suggestion - how can it influence peoples' behaviour

-wrote books about the need of psychology in advertising

-increasing efficiency by imitation, competiton, loyality + concentration

Frederick W. Taylor

-idea of work-rest to increase efficiency

-stressed on using of scientific methods to measure

Hugo Munsterberg

-selecting workers

-designing work situations

-using psycho in sales

-studied all tasks (aspects) of the job

-studying: what makes a safe trolley car operator

o developed a laboratory simulation of a trolley car

-a good operator should know all aspects of the job

Army Alpha (WW I)

-first intelligence test

-to recruit the right soldiers with the right KSA's

- discovered that 30% of recruits were illiterate

-developed Army Beta Test for those who cannot read English

-use of tests was minimal because the war was soon over

Hawthorne effect

-find relationship between lightening and efficiency

o productivity did not seem to have a relationship to the level of illumination

-change of behaviour because workers wanted to impress the researchers

-novel treatment of situation affects behaviour (improved performance)

-Return to previous level of behaviour when novelty wears off

o can last from a few days to two years

-major findings:

o informal work groups control productivity

oimportance of employees attitudes

oprod. affected by way of supervising

onew vistas to field were opend

efficiency is not the only criterion

Chapter 2

Why do organizations exist?

-for accomplishing goals and objectives more effectively

Classical theory:

-identification of 4 major principles:

ofuntional principle division of labour, supervisors with responisibilty

oscalar principle hierarchy-> vertical growth

o staff principle support function

ospan of control principle supervisory responsibilities

-the lower the position the lower the respons.


oprovides structural anatomy of organizations

olittle influenceof psycho

-disadvantages: relationships play no role

Systems Organization Theory/ Modern Organization Theory

-interdependent relationship orga. environment

-orga. communication is important to make system work

-views organization as a living organism - adaptable to change, no direct span of control

-social system has abstract components:

o define expected behaviour of group

o decribe appropriate behaviour in a specific position

oover the members to get them behave in certain ways

oculture language, values, attitudes, beliefs, customs e.g. nobody leaves before 5pm, women have low positions etc.


-structure of orga as division of labour into tasks and among these coordination

-adaption to environment

basic parts of orga

-operating core- people to perform the basic work-production

-Strategic Apex- to ensure the effective reach of goals (mission)

-Middle Line- in hierarchy between op. core and St. Apex

-Technostructure- technical assistance, serve the orga. e.g PC support

-Support staff- provides service to aid thebasic mission

Reorganizing/ downsize:

-promote employees, moving up in hierarchy, relationships may change

-orga. reconfiguring itself to better adapt to its environment

-downsizing;loss of jobs


improve organization

rather out-sourcing than hiring more people...
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