Thermoelectric Transducers

Topics: Thermoelectric effect, Thermodynamics, Thermocouple Pages: 2 (340 words) Published: August 5, 2012
Thermoelectric transducers

      Thermoelectric transducers elements convert the change of measurand (temperatures) into the change of current, arising up because of difference of temperature on the junction of two heterogeneous materials, which an effect of Seebeck (fig. 17) is in.       A thermoelectric transducers is anymore known under the name thermocouples, in which a probe consists of two junctions, one of which takes place in a point, where taking temperature is produced, and second - in the point of supporting temperature (fig. 18). Difference of potentials of V1 - V2  which appears on two junction (known as pin potentials), depends  on  the temperature of shuts and measured by a voltmeter. Thus, the testimonies of voltmeter  represent  the difference  of temperatures  between junction.

Fig. 17. Effect of Seebeck, at which in a chart, consisting of shuts of two heterogeneous metals, being at a different temperature, there is a current

Fig. 18. Principle, actions of thermocouple

Fig. 19. Typical dependences   of tension on the difference of temperature for thermocouples the junctions of which   are executed   from different materials : 1 is a nickel-chrome/constantan (Е); 2 is iron/constantan (type of J),  3 is a copper/constantan    (type of Т); 4 is a nickel-chrome/a nickel-manganese is aluminium-silicon   (type of К); 5 platinum-rhodium/platinum    (type   of R) 6 is platinum-rhodium/platinum (type of S)

      On a fig. 19 the tensions crooked, characterizing dependence are shown from the difference of temperatures for the row of typical materials which the junctions of thermocouples appear from. Although these dependences seem linear, the detailed researches show that it not quite so.       In practice not so it is simple to attain necessary exactness of the temperature measuring by means of thermocouples, as  it can appear from reasonings given above, as connection of voltmeter with a thermoelectric chart self on itself forms a new...
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