Thermodynamics: Entropy and Suggested Reading Problems

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Chapter 1 Introduction and Basic Concepts 1-1 Thermodynamics and Energy Application Areas of Thermodynamics 1-2 Importance of Dimensions and Units Some SI and English Units Dimensional Homogeneity Unity Conversion Ratios 1-3 Systems and Control Volumes 1-4 Properties of a System Continuum 1-5 Density and Specific Gravity 1-6 State and Equilibrium The State Postulate 1-7 Processes and Cycles The Steady-Flow Process 1-8 Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics Temperature Scales The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) 1-9 Pressure Variation of Pressure with Depth 1-10 The Manometer Other Pressure Measurement Devices 1-11 The Barometer and Atmospheric Pressure 1-12 Problem-Solving Technique Step 1: Problem Statement Step 2: Schematic Step 3: Assumptions and Approximations Step 4: Physical Laws Step 5: Properties Step 6: Calculations Step 7: Reasoning, Verification, and Discussion Engineering Software Packages A Remark on Significant Digits Summary References and Suggested Reading Problems

Chapter 2 Energy Conversion and General Energy Analysis 2-1 Introduction 2-2 Forms of Energy Some Physical Insight to Internal Energy Mechanical Energy More on Nuclear Energy 2-3 Energy Transfer by Heat Historical Background on Heat 2-4 Energy Transfer by Work Electrical Work 2-5 Mechanical Forms of Work Shaft Work Spring Work Work Done on Elastic Solid Bars Work Associated with the Stretching of a Liquid Film Work Done to Raise or to Accelerate a Body Nonmechanical Forms of Work 2-6 The First Law of Thermodynamics Energy Balance Energy Change of a System, ∆Esystem Mechanisms of Energy Transfer, Ein and Eout 2-7 Energy Conversion Efficiencies 2-8 Energy and Environment Ozone and Smog Acid Rain The Greenhouse Effect: Global Warming and Climate Change Topic of Special Interest: Mechanisms of Heat Transfer Summary References and Suggested Reading Problems Chapter 3 Properties of Pure Substances 3-1 Pure Substance

3-2 Phases of a Pure Substance 3-3 Phase-Change Processes of Pure Substances Compressed Liquid and Saturated Liquid Saturated Vapor and Superheated Vapor Saturation Temperature and Saturation Pressure Some Consequences of Tsat and Psat Dependence 3-4 Property Diagrams for Phase-Change Processes 1 The T-v Diagram 2 The P-v Diagram Extending the Diagrams to Include the Solid Phase 3 The P-T Diagram The P-v-T Surface 3-5 Property Tables Enthalpy—A Combination Property 1a Saturated Liquid and Saturated Vapor States 1b Saturated Liquid–Vapor Mixture 2 Superheated Vapor 3 Compressed Liquid Reference State and Reference Values 3-6 The Ideal-Gas Equation of State Is Water Vapor an Ideal Gas? 3-7 Compressibility Factor—A Measure of Deviation from Ideal-Gas Behavior 3-8 Other Equations of State Van der Waals Equation of State Beattie-Bridgeman Equation of State Benedict-Webb-Rubin Equation of State Virial Equation of State Topic of Special Interest Vapor Pressure and Phase Equilibrium Summary References and Suggested Reading Problems Chapter 4 Energy Analysis of Closed Systems 4-1 Moving Boundary Work Polytropic Process

4-2 Energy Balance for Closed Systems 4-3 Specific Heats 4-4 Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heats of Ideal Gases Specific Heat Relations of Ideal Gases 4-5 Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heat of Solids and Liquids Internal Energy Changes Enthalpy Changes Topic of Special Interest: Thermodynamic Aspects of Biological Systems Summary References and Suggested Reading Problems Chapter 5 Mass and Energy Analysis of Control Volumes 5-1 Conservation of Mass Mass and Volume Flow Rates Conservation of Mass Principle Mass Balance for Steady-Flow Processes Special Case: Incompressible Flow 5-2 Flow Work and the Energy of a Flowing Fluid Total Energy of a Flowing Fluid Energy Transport by Mass 5-3 Energy Analysis of Steady-Flow Systems Energy Balance 5-4 Some Steady-Flow Engineering Devices 1 Nozzles and Diffusers 2 Turbines and Compressors 3 Throttling Valves 4a Mixing Chambers 4b Heat...
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