9. A concrete highway is built of slabs 14 m long (20Cº). How wide should the expansion cracks be (at 20Cº) between the slabs to prevent buckling if the temperature range is -30Cº to +50Cº? I know I use the formula:

L = LoT
L = ? (Change in length of the slabs. We are solving for this.) = 12e-6 (Coefficient of expansion. I looked it up on page 388.) Lo = 14 m (Initial length of slabs.)
T = 30 Cº (50Cº - 20Cº) (Change in temperaure. You only care about the hottest number since you are dealing with expansion.) I then had the formula:
L = e14 m 30Cº
L = .00504 m
L = .50 cm
The space between the slabs must be the same as the expansion of the the slabs. Therefore .50 cm is the correct answer. 17. A quartz sphere is 14.5 cm in diameter. What will its change in volume if it is heated from 30Cº to 200Cº? I had the formula:

V = VoT
V = ? (Volumetric change in the sphere. We are solving for this.) = 1e -6 (Cº)-1 (Coefficient of volumetric expansion. It is on page 388 listed as .) Vo = (4/3) * (.145 m/2)3 (Initial volume. You must take the diameter and divide by to to get the radius. Then you must stick it in the formula for volume of a sphere: (4/3)r3 Vo = .001569 m3

T = 170Cº (Change in temperature. 200Cº - 30Cº.) I then had the formula:
V = 1e-6*.001569m3*170Cº
V = 2.7 e-7 m3 *1e6 (Conversion from m3 to cm3.)
V = .27 cm3
The answer is therefore .27 cm3.

19. If the fluid is contained in a long, narrow vessel so it can expand in essentially one direction only, show that the effective coefficient of linear expansion is approximately equal to the coefficient of volume expansion (in the IB packet.)? Since it can only expand in one direction, is is really linear expansion, not volumetric expansion. Therefore the two coefficients would be the same.

23. A 23.4 kg solid aluminum wheel of radius 0.52 m is rotating about its axel in frictionless bearings with an angular velocity 32.8...

...Biomolecule BCH 3101
Thermodynamics of Biological Systems • Movement, growth, synthesis of biomolecules, and the transport of ions and molecules across membranes all requires energy. • All organisms acquire energy from their surroundings and utilize that energy efficiently to carry out life processes. • In order to study these bio-energetic phenomena we will require knowledge of thermodynamics.
BCH3101 1
• Thermodynamics: defined as a collection...

...Example 1
Nozzle Flow - Steam Steam at 1.5 bar and 150 deg C enters a nozzle at 10 m/s and exits at 1 bar. Assuming the flow is reversible and adiabatic, determine the exit temperature and velocity. If the exit nozzle area is 0.001 m2, evaluate the mass flow rate of the steam through the nozzle. P1 = 1.5 bar T1 = 90 deg C V1 = 10 m/s A2 = 0.001 m2
P2 =1 bar T2 = ? V2 = ? mdot = ?
V2 = sqrt(V1*V1+2*(h1-h2)) mdot = rho*A2*V2 = A2*V2/v2 T2
382.60 m/s 0.22 kg/s 111.81 degC...

...Thermodynamics Lab
Introduction:
Thermodynamics is the study of energy which can exist in many forms, such as heat, light, chemical energy, and electrical energy. The variables that thermodynamics can be used to define include temperature, internal energy, entropy, and pressure. Temperature, relating to thermodynamics, is the measure of kinetic energy in the particles of a substance. Light is usually linked to absorbance and emission...

...UNIFIED ENGINEERING
Lecture Outlines
2000
Ian A. Waitz
THERMODYNAMICS:
COURSE INTRODUCTION
Course Learning Objectives:
To be able to use the First Law of Thermodynamics to estimate the potential for thermomechanical energy conversion in aerospace power and propulsion systems.
Measurable outcomes (assessment method):
1) To be able to state the First Law and to define heat, work, thermal efficiency and
the difference between various forms of energy....

...established principle of thermodynamics (which eventually became the Second Law) was formulated by Sadi Carnot in 1824. By 1860, as found in the works of those such as Rudolf Clausius and William Thomson, there were two established "principles" of thermodynamics, the first principle and the second principle. As the years passed, these principles turned into "laws." By 1873, for example, thermodynamicist Josiah Willard Gibbs, in his “Graphical Methods in the...

...said to be in thermal equilibrium and to be equal in temperature.
The 2 systems are equal in temperature when no change in any property occurs when they are
brought into communication.
5.2 The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
(This law was formulated after the First Law of Thermodynamics. Since it is more
fundamental, it is called the Zeroth Law)
It was observed experimentally that 2 systems that are equal in temperature to a third
system are also equal in...

...is used. It is provided with a pressure gauge, a digital thermometer and a safety valve. An aneroid barometer is used to determine atmospheric pressure.
1 2 3 Drain valve Heater Overflow
Variation of saturation temperature with pressure
Thermodynamics Laboratory Manual
Marcet boiler
4 5
6 7 8 9
Temperature sensor Pressure relief valve Filler opening with plug Pressure gauge Master switch Boiler with insulating jacket
11 Temperature display
10 Heater...

...The first law of thermodynamics states that energy is neither created nor destroyed when transferred from one form to another. This means that the energy we put into a chemical or physical change will be the same energy we get out of the energy transformation. An example of the first law of thermodynamics is when you rub your hands together to generate heat on your palms. This is not creating energy instead you’ve actually moved energy from your body through your...

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