To study the relationship between the saturation pressure and temperature of water/steam in the range 0 – 14 bar (gauge) and to study the change in temperature of a body when being heated or cooled.

Safety

The apparatus is a pressure vessel. The pressure must not exceed 14 Bar (gauge)!

Background

1)In order to carry out a heat transfer experiment simultaneously with measurement of vapour pressure, it is required that the rates of heating and cooling of the pressure vessel, the rate of energy addition by the heater and the ambient temperature are recorded.

2)Study the following derivation of a simplified 1st Law (energy) equation relating the temperature of the boiler to time as it is heated and cooled.

Assumptions

i.The temperature is uniform throughout the boiler. Thus the outside surface temperature of the boiler is the same as the steam temperature, T.

ii.Newton’s Law of cooling applies – the rate of heat transfer from the surface is proportional to the surface area, As, and to the temperature difference between the boiler surface and the surroundings ( T- T).

Thus,

where (kW/m2K) is called the heat transfer coefficient for heat transfer between the boiler surface and the surroundings. By Newton’s law of cooling it is assumed constant.

The 1st law balance for the boiler at time t (secs) is

+ Rate of change of internal energy of the boiler and contents.

Therefore,

Where MC (kJ/ K) is the heat capacity of the boiler which in this simplified development is assumed constant.

So, when being heated,

(1)

and when cooling,

(2)

At a value of T1 on the lot of the measured heating curve and at a value T2 on the cooling curve, the respective slopes,

and

are determined by construction. The value of dQ/dt may be calculated from tabulated measurements of electrical energy consumption (kWh) versus time (hrs), or from a...

...Solutions (Week-01)
Chapter-01
1-12 A plastic tank is filled with water. The weight of the combined system is to be determined.
Assumptions The density of water is constant throughout.
Properties The density of water is given to be = 1000 kg/m3.
Analysis The mass of the water in the tank and the total mass are
mw =V =(1000 kg/m3)(0.2 m3) = 200 kg
mtotal = mw + mtank = 200 + 3 = 203 kg
Thus,
1-14 The variation of gravitational acceleration above the sea level is...

...ENGINEERING
THERMODYNAMICS
Dr. Tamer A. Tabet
Course Code: KC1702 and Mechanical Eng.
Programme, KM21102.
SEMS-1-2011/2012
Lecture 6. Tue. 15 / 10/ 2012
Lecture Room DKP 10
Engineering Thermodynamics
Lecture 6: Evaluating Properties
Using the Ideal gas
OUTLINE:
Real gases, specific heats,
internal energy, enthalpy
In this section the ideal gas model is introduced.
The ideal gas model has many applications in
engineering practice and is frequently used in...

...Chapter 15
(not much on E)
Thermodynamics:
Enthalpy, Entropy
& Gibbs Free
Energy
Thermo 2
Thermodynamics:
thermo = heat (energy)
dynamics = movement, motion
Some thermodynamic terms chemists use:
System: the portion of the universe that we are
considering
open system:
energy & matter can transfer
closed system:
energy transfers only
isolated system: no transfers
Surroundings: everything else besides the system
Isothermal: a system...

...Enthalpy changes can be calculated using average bond enthalpy data.
i) The enthalpy change to convert methane into gaseous atoms is shown below.
[pic]
Calculate the average bond enthalpy of a C—H bond in methane. [1]
ii) Use the data in the table below and your answer to (a)(i) to calculate the enthalpy
change for
[pic] [3]
[pic]
b) The standard enthalpy of formation of 1,2-dibromoethane, CH2BrCH2Br, is – 37.8 kJmol-1.
Suggest the main reason...

...Grading Sheet
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
MIME 3470—Thermal Science Laboratory
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Laboratory №. 17
Refrigeration Cycle Analysis
Students’ Names / Section №
POINTS
SCORE
TOTAL
PRESENTATION—Applicable to Both MS Word and Mathcad Sections
GENERAL APPEARANCE
5
ORGANIZATION
5
ENGLISH / GRAMMAR
5
ORDERED DATA, CALCULATIONS & RESULTS
TABLE OF PROPERTIES FOR THE 8 STATES
10
PLOT IDEAL...

...CHEMISTRY 110 GENERAL CHEMISTRY I INFORMATION SHEET Fall 2011
Instructors:
Professor Ashok Kakkar Otto Maass Chemistry Building, room 313 Tel: (514) 398-6912 Office hours: By appointment, e-mail via WebCT to arrange meetings. E-mail: use webCT Professor Scott Bohle Otto Maass Chemistry Building, room 233A Tel: (514) 398-7409 Office hours: By appointment, e-mail via WebCT to arrange meetings E-mail: use webCT Professor Bryan Sanctuary Otto Maass Chemistry Building, room 224 Tel: (514)...

...of other non-conventional sources of energy like wind, solar, tides, geothermal heat, etc. This is a new concept for electricity generation using temperature difference between junctions of a peltier element to be used in our project. The complete Thermo Electric Generator would be based on Seebeck Effect that is reverse of peltier effect. The thermoelectric effect is the direct conversion of temperature differences to electric voltage and vice-versa. A thermoelectric device...

...I. Objective
The first objective of the measurement of thermal conductivity & one-dimensional heat conduction experiment was to identify three different metal specimens by comparing their experimentally determined thermal conductivities to known thermal conductivity values of existing metals. The second objective of the experiment was to establish a connection between the thermal conductivities & temperatures of the metal specimens. Thirdly, the contact resistance of the interfaces...