Theory of Language

Topics: Language acquisition, Learning, Linguistics Pages: 13 (4550 words) Published: May 23, 2013

Language makes connection between people. It is a particular kind of system for encoding and decoding. It has got rules and in this rules it can develop because it is alive. It is mother who is source of many events or notion. It is like a mirror and reflects to us many details from its period. Languages have great mission which one is protector of culture. Language is also representative of freedom. ’’Language is a complex, specialized skill, which develops in the child spontaneously, without conscious effort or formal instruction, is deployed without awareness of its underlying logic, is qualitatively the same in every individual, and is distinct from more general abilities to process information or behave intelligently.’’ (Pinker, 1994) We can study on language in two different views which are structural view and functional view.

Structural View of Language
The structural view of language is a system of structurally related elements for the transmission of meaning. They are the basic items in language learning. These are usually described as: * Phonological Units (Phonemes)

* Grammatical Units (Phrases, clauses, sentences…)
* Grammatical Operations (Adding, shifting, joining or transforming elements) * Lexical Items (Function words and structure words)
In these elements, lexical items have very important position, because they can be generally understood to convey a single meaning, namely we understand meaning with their helps. There are some language learning methods based on this view of language. These are: Audio-lingual Method, Grammar Translation Method and Silent Way.

Functional View of Language
In functional or communicative view of language, language is seen as vehicle for the statement of functional meaning. Also, in this view, the semantic and communicative dimensions of language are more important than grammatical characteristics. It is said that language is communication. There are some language learning approaches and methods based on this view of language. These are: Communicative Approach, The Natural Approach and Functional-notional Syllabuses. Why Must Students Learn Language?

Language has many subsystems related to sounds, grammar and vocabulary, meaning and knowing the right way to say something on a particular occasion to accomplish a specific purpose. The speaker who knows all of these has acquired ‘communicative competence’. (Lyon J. 1981) According to Canale & Swain (1973), there are four types of communicative competence. * Grammatical Competence: Learning about issues such as the impact of on Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) an individual’s natural speech production and the relationship between spoken language and the language of AAC systems. * Discourse Competence: Considering issues related to technical operation of AAC systems, including motor development and control, cognitive factors like awareness and memory. * Sociolinguistic Competence: Exploring factors such as the effect of developmental disabilities on social communication, challenges to developing social connections, and the ability to conduct conversations. * Strategic Competence: Examining operational, linguistic, and social constraints faced by AAC users and learning about adaptive skills that allow users to make the most of what they can do. I think sociolinguistic competence is more important, because in everyday life, we use language to interact with each other. The other competences are not enough on their own. For example, you can know all the rules of English; it does not mean you can communicate fluently with people. So, speaking and understanding each other is important.

My Views about Language
If I define the language, I can say that it is communication among people. Also, it is a system of communication that enables humans to cooperate. Humans use language to...
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