Theory of Justice

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The theory of justice is a work of political philosophy and ethics by John Rawls. According to Gomez, philosopher John Rawls who lived between 1921- 2002, argued the notion of social justice as fairness in his book "A Theory of Justice." He used foundations of utilitarian and Kantian philosophy to create a possible technique to estimate the ethics of social and political institutions. The principles of justice theories was Rawls's theory and it is dependent on two important and central principles of social justice that, according to Rawls, assures a just and morally acceptable society. The first principle of social justice states “every person has a right to the most basic liberties, same as any other person who has a right to the same liberties.” The second principle of social justice states “all people should have access to the same social and economic positions and be able to take advantage of them”.

According to Areson, utilitarianism is the principle Rawls reputes as the most difficult form and type of teleology, which he describes as a theory that not only expresses the good as independent from the right but states and identifies the right while maximizing the good. Utilitarianism usually is taken as a theory of justice and holds that “society is rightly ordered, and therefore just, when its major institutions are arranged so as to achieve the greatest net balance of satisfaction summed over all the individuals belonging to it”. Rawls argues that utilitarianism discounts the separateness and clearness of persons and does not recognize that justice is what free persons would choose as the principles to order or control their social cooperation under terms and situations that are fair. The virtue of caution involves an individual to be impartial in making decisions that affect all of the times of her life. A benefit at one time should count the same as an identical benefit that could instead be gained at another time, and the same with losses. Rawls...
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