Theories of Human Development
Theory of Psychosexual Stages of Human Development
Sigmund Freud - Father of Psychoanalysis, believed that all human beings pass through a series of psychosexual stages. Each stage is dominated by the development of sensitivity in a particular erogenous or pleasure-giving spot in the body. Each stage poses for individuals a unique conflict that they must resolve before they go to the next higher stage. If individuals are unsuccessful in resolving the conflict, the resulting frustration becomes chronic (long-lasting) and remains central feature of their psychological make-up. Individuals may become so addicted to the pleasure of a given stage that they are unwilling to move on to the later stages. As a result of either frustration or over indulgence, individuals experience fixation at a particular stage. Fixation –is the tendency to stay at a particular stage.
ORAL STAGE –( 1styr.of life) marks the infant’s need for gratification from the mother. An infant’s eating, sucking. Spitting and chewing do not only satisfy hunger, but also provide pleasure. ANAL STAGE – ( 2nd -3rd yr. of life) reflects the toddler’s need for gratification along the rectal area. During this stage, children must endure the demands of toilet training. PHALLIC STAGE – ( 4th-5thyr.of life) concentrates on the preschooler’s gratification involving the genitals. Children at this stage gratify their sex instinct by fondling their genitals and developing an incestuous desire for the opposite sex parent. OEDIPUS COMPLEX and ELECTRA COMPLEX.
LATENCY STAGE – ( 6TH yr. of life – puberty) during this time, sexual desires are repressed and all the child’s available libido is channeled into socially acceptable outlets. GENITAL STAGE – ( from puberty onwards) characterized by the maturation of the reproductive system, production of sex hormones and a reactivation of the genital zone as an area of sensual pleasure. The adolescent may openly express libido towards...
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