Rosemarie Rizzo Parse is a noted nursing scholar and prolific author. The humanbecoming school of thought presents an alternative to both the conventional bio-medical approach and the bio-psycho-social-spiritual approach of theories of nursing. The humanbecoming school of thought posits quality of life from each person's or group's own perspective as the goal of nursing. Rosemarie Rizzo Parse first published the theory in 1981 as the "Man-living-health" theory. The name was officially changed to "the human becoming theory" in 1992 to remove the term "man," after the change in the dictionary definition of the word from its former meaning of “humankind” (Delis, 2012, p.145). Parse was educated at Duquesne University in Pittsburgh and earned her master’s and doctoral degrees from the University of Pittsburgh. She went on to become dean of the College of Nursing at Duquesne and is currently Professor and Niehoff chair at Loyola University in Chicago (McEwen & Wills, 2011). Parse’s Theory of Human Becoming stems from principals and concepts from Roger’s Science of Unitary Human Beings and incorporated concepts from existential phenomenological thought as expressed by Heidegger, Sarte and Marleau-Ponty. The theory comes from her experience in nursing and from a synthesis of theoretical principals of human sciences. Human Becoming Theory
The humanbecoming theory purports that humans not only are “indivisible,
unpredictable, and everchanging,” (Smith, 2010, p. 216) they are to be honored. Within this
framework, nursing practice focuses on bearing witness to the journey of each individual’s
unfolding health patterns. Parse synthesized the nine assumptions of humans and becoming into three broad statements, “Human becoming is freely choosing personal meaning in situations in the intersubjective process of living value priorities, human becoming is cocreating rhythmical patterns of relating in mutual process...