Q.R.1 It is often said that a good theory is one that can be refuted by an empirical, data-oriented study. Explain why a theory that cannot be evaluated empirically is not a good theory.
Theory, whether in economics or sciences, helps ones predict and succeed in explaining on what they intend to explain relies on convincing assumptions. However, accuracy and validity of theories are important as the more accuracy in the theory, the more success in whatever business or science. Hence, all theories should be tested whether they are practical in the reality. If they are not, we should develop and modify them so that ones can make good predictions with current circumstance and match reality, otherwise these theories will be useless.
Q.R.2 Which of the following two statements involves positive economic analysis and which normative? How do the two kinds of analysis differ?
a. Gasoline rationing (allocating to each individual a maximum amount of gasoline that can be purchased each year) is poor social policy because it interferes with the workings of the competitive market system.
b. Gasoline rationing is a policy under which more people are made worse off than are made better off.
Statement a. involves both positive economic and normative economic analysis. It involves positive analysis as it contains relationship of cause and effect – “because it interferes with the workings of the competitive market system”. Also, it involves normative analysis because it is supplemented by value judgment – “Gasoline rationing is poor social policy”.
Statement b. involves positive economic analysis because it is not contain any value judgments, but it only states the effect of gasoline rationing that is “more people are made worse off than are made better off”.
Positive analysis is concerned with explanation and prediction or cause and effect. In a mean time, normative analysis deals with what ought to be or what is the best.
EXERCISE 2 The following table...
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