Sigmund Freud - Psychosexual Theory
·Basic Philosophy - The basic philosophy is that the sex instinct is the most factor influencing personality; sexual instinct is present at birth, but it occurs in stages. The sex instinct provides the driving force for thought and activity. If conflicts from these stages are not resolved fixations may occur. If overindulgence at a stage may result in a person remaining at that stage. Certain personality traits develop from difficulty in one stage or another, for instance the anal stage can give the obsession for a person to be excessively neat and clean. ·Key concepts
Oral Stage - (birth to 12 or 18 mo.) mouth used for sexual pleasure
Anal Stage - (1to 3 yrs.) children derive pleasure from expelling and withholding feces.
Phallic Stage - (3 to 5 or 6 yrs.) during this stage children learn they can derive pleasure from masturbation. The Oedipus complex also develops during this time.
Latency period - (5 or 6 til puberty) this stage is relatively calm. The sex instinct is repressed.
Genital Stage - (puberty on) focus is shifted to the opposite sex, heterosexual relations are formed and the person attains full adult sexuality.
· Strengths and Usefulness - This theory emphasized the impact of childhood experiences on later life. Psychoanalysis helps bring the unconscious to the conscious so it can be dealt with.
·Weaknesses and Criticisms - Some people say his theories are gender bias, everything resolves around penis envy. I feel he over emphasized sexual instinct and left out mental or emotional factors on personality.
·Applications - This is used mainly for counseling and therapy. It is used to tap the unconscious motives and sort and fix unmet needs.
Erik Erikson - Psychosocial Theory
·Basic Phiosophy - Individuals progress through eight psychosocial stages in their life span; each stage is defined by a conflict with the social environment which must be resolved, if the conflict is not resolved problems could arise later in life.
Basic trust vs. Mistrust - (birth to 1) developed by care level of parents or gaurdians
Autonomy vs. Shame - (1-3 yrs.) express independence, exercise control. if this does not occur shame will develop
Initiative vs. Guilt - (3-6 yrs.) initiate activiy, plan tasks
Industry vs. Inferiority - (6-puberty) feel pride and making things and doing things.
Identity vs. role confusion - (adolescence) establish identity and consider a future occupational identity.
Intimacy vs. Isolation - (young adulthood) develop the ability to share with, care for, and commit themselves to another person....