Theory

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Content:
A. Behaviorist perspective

1. Behaviorism: Pavlov, Thorndike, Skinner
2. Neo-Behaviorism: Tolmann and Bandura

B. Cognitive Perspective

1. Gestalt Psychology
2. Bruner’s constructivist Theory
3. Bruner’s constructivist theory
4. Ausebel’s Meaningful Verbal Learning / Subsumption Theory

Prepared by: Nemarose Jane Tauyan

Behaviorism: Pavlov, Thorndike, Skinner

Pavlov (1849 - 1936)
For most people, the name "Pavlov" rings a bell (pun intended). The Russian physiologist is best known for his work in classical conditioning or stimulus substitution. Pavlov's most famous experiment involved food, a dog and a bell. Pavlov's Experiment

* Before conditioning, ringing the bell caused no response from the dog. Placing food in front of the dog initiated salivation. * During conditioning, the bell was rung a few seconds before the dog was presented with food. * After conditioning, the ringing of the bell alone produced salivation.  Stimulus and Response Items of Pavlov's Experiment

Food| Unconditioned Stimulus|
Salivation| Unconditioned Response (natural, not learned)| Bell| Conditioned Stimulus|
Salivation| Conditioned Response (to bell)|
Thorndike (1874 - 1949)
Edward Thorndike did research in animal behavior before becoming interested in human psychology. He set out to apply "the methods of exact science" to educational problems by emphasizing "accurate quantitative treatment of information". "Anything that exists, exists in a certain quantity and can be measured" (Johcich, as cited in Rizo, 1991). His theory, Connectionism, stated that learning was the formation of a connection between stimulus and response. * The "law of effect" stated that when a connection between a stimulus and response is positively rewarded it will be strengthened and when it is negatively rewarded it will be weakened. Thorndike later revised this "law" when he found that negative reward, (punishment) did not...
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