1. Psychosocial – Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development is most widely used. At each stage, children confront a crisis that requires the integration of personal needs and skills with social and cultural expectations. Each stage has two possible components, favorable and unfavorable.
2. Psychosexual – Sigmund Freud considered sexual instincts to be significant in the development of personality. At each stage, regions of the body assume prominent psychologic significance as source of pleasure.
3. Cognitive – Jean Piaget proposed four major stages of development for logical thinking. Each stage arises from and builds on the previous stage in an orderly fashion.
4. Moral – Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of moral development is based on cognitive development and consists of three major levels, each containing two stages.
|Stage |Erikson |Freud |Piaget |Kohlberg | |Infancy |Trust vs. mistrust |Oral |Sensorimotor (birth to 2 | | |(birth to 1 year) | | |years) | | |Toddlerhood |Autonomy vs. same and doubt|Anal |Sensorimotor (1-2 years); |Preconventional | |(1-3 years old) | | |preoperational | | | | | |(preconceptual) (2-4 years) | | |Preschool |Initiative vs. guilt |Phallic |Preoperational |Preconventional | |(3-6 years old)...