Theories of Management

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Theories gave organizations a framework for knowledge and a guide to achieving their goals. The Industrial Revolution prompted the need for better supervision of workers to boost productivity within the automobile, steel, and coal industries. It is because of this need that the various theories of management began to take shape.

The classical management theory, which came about during the Industrial Revolution, focused on the single best way to perform and manage tasks. This enabled factories to operate year round and mass production of goods. But as the revolution went on, the factories divided into separate schools of thought regarding management yet still considered it to be a part of classical. The emphasis on manufacturing and getting work done is the concept of the classical scientific school. Managers constantly monitored workers and controlled the work they did. This caused productivity to increase but failed to consider the needs of the workers. Thus, workers sought ways around the controls that were placed on them. They were not permitted to voice their ideas or try anything new. But organizations became more complex and there was a need for a new theory.

Companies focused on productivity and efficiency which lead to the classical administrative school. The emphasis now was on the flow of information and how the companies should operate. Managers were given guidelines to follow and shared goals. Henry Fayol introduced general principles of management giving managers functions such as planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling. Though this thought process developed and molded those in management positions, it did very little for employees. Workers were treated like robots instead of people and consequently were not enthusiastic about their jobs.

In the law enforcement organization both of these schools associated with the classical management theory have been implemented at one time or another depending on who...
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