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Theoriesof International A Migration: Review and Appraisal
DOUGLAS S. MASSEY JOAQUIN ARANGO GRAEME HUGO ALI KOUAOUCI ADELA PELLEGRINO J. EDWARD TAYLOR
OVERTHEPAST30 YEARS, has as imrnigration emerged a major force throughout In theworld. traditional immigrant-receiving suchas Australia, societies Canada, andtheUnited has and the of States, volume immigration grown itscomposition has shifted decisively away fromEurope,the historically dominant source, In and countries that toward Asia,Africa, LatinAmerica. Europe, meanwhile, for centuries had been sendingout migrants were suddenly transformed in intoimmigrant-receiving societies. After 1945,virtually countries Western all Europebeganto attract significant numbers workers from abroad.Although of the migrants were initially drawnmainly from southern Europe,by the late in 1960sthey mostly came from developing countries Africa, Asia,theCaribbean,and theMiddleEast. in By the 1980s even countries southern Europe-Italy,Spain, and Portugal-which onlya decadebefore beensending had to migrants wealthier in countries the north, workers from began to import Africa, Asia, and the MiddleEast.Atthesametime, birth Japan-withitslow and still declining rate, its aging population, and its high standard living-founditself of turning increasingly migrants poorer to from in countries Asiaand evenSouthAmerica to satisfy laborneeds. its Mostoftheworld's have multiethnic developed countries becomediverse, in and that havenotreached state moving this are societies, those decisively that direction. emergence international The of as feature migration a basicstructural all and ofnearly industrialized to of countries testifies thestrength coherence the POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW 19, NO. 3 (SEPTEMBER 1993)
these remains base understanding forces forces. thetheoretical for Yet underlying and has taken officials, boominimmigration therefore citizens, weak.Therecent migration, and when it comes to international by demographers surprise, and in concepts, models, mired nineteenth-century remains popularthinking assumptions. migration, theory international of coherent there no single, is Atpresent, in from largely isolation that set onlya fragmented oftheories have developed boundaries. but by one another, sometimes notalwayssegmented...