The term growth and development both refers to dynamic process. Often used interchangeably, these terms have different meanings. Growth and development are interdependent, interrelated process. Growth generally takes place during the first 20 years of life.; development continues after that. Growth:
1. Is physical change and increase in size.
2. It can be measured quantitatively.
3. Indicators of growth include height, weight, bone size, and dentition. 4. Growth rates vary during different stages of growth and development. 5. The growth rate is rapid during the prenatal, neonatal, infancy and adolescent stages and slows during childhood. 6. Physical growth is minimal during adulthood.
1. Is an increase in the complexity of function and skill progression. 2. It is the capacity and skill of a person to adapt to the environment. 3. Development is the behavioral aspect of growth.
1. Freud’s Psychosexual Development Theory
STAGE| AGE| CHARACTERISTICS|
1. Oral| Birth to 1½ y/o| Center of pleasure: mouth (major source of gratification & exploration)Primary need: SecurityMajor conflict: weaning| 2. Anal| 1½ to 3 y/o| Source of pleasure: anus & bladder (sensual satisfaction & self-control)Major conflict: toilet training| 3. Phallic| 4 to 6 y/o| Center of pleasure: child’s genital (masturbation)Major conflict: Oedipus & Electra Complex| 4. Latency| 6 y/o to puberty| Energy directed to physical & intellectual activitiesSexual impulses repressedRelationship between peers of same sex| 5. Genital| Puberty onwards| Energy directed towards full sexual maturity & function & development of skills to cope with the environment| 2. Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Theory
STAGE| AGE| CENTRAL TASK| (+) RESOLUTION| (-) RESOLUTION| 1. Infancy| Birth-18 mos| Trust vs Mistrust| Learn to trust others| Mistrust, withdrawal, estrangement| 2. Early childhood| 1½ to 3 y/o| Autonomy vs Shame & doubt| Self control w/o loss of self esteemAbility of cooperate & express oneself| Compulsive, self-restraint or compliance.Willfulness & defiance.| 3. Late childhood| 3 to 5 y/o| Initiative vs guilt| Learns to become assertiveAbility to evaluate one’s own behavior| Lack of self-confidence.Pessimism, fear of wrongdoing.Over-control & over-restriction.| 4. School Age| 6 to 12 y/o| Industry vs Inferiority| Learns to create, develop & manipulate.Develop sense of competence & perseverance.| Loss of hope, sense of being mediocre.Withdrawal from school & peers.| 5. Adolescence| 12–20 y/o| Identity vs role confusion| Coherent sense of self.Plans to actualize one’s abilities| Feelings of confusion, indecisiveness, & possible anti-social behavior.| 6. Young Adulthood| 18-25 y/o| Intimacy vs isolation| Intimate relationship with another person.Commitment to work and relationships.| Impersonal relationships.Avoidance of relationship, career or lifestyle commitments.| 7. Adulthood| 25-65 y/o| Generativity vs stagnation| Creativity,productivity, concern for others.| Self-indulgence, self-concern, lack of interests & commitments.| 8. Maturity| 65 y/o to death| Integrity vs despair| Acceptance of worth & uniqueness of one’s own life.Acceptance of death.| Sense of loss, contempt for others.| 3. Havighurst’s Developmental Stage and Tasks
DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE| DEVELOPMENTAL TASK|
1. Infancy & early childhood| - eat solid foods- walk- talk- control elimination of wastes- relate emotionally to others- distinguish right from wrong through development of a conscience- learn sex differences and sexual modesty- achieve personal independence- form simple concepts of social...