University of Phoenix – Axia
There are seven major theories of Biology that attempt to organize and make sense of the multitude of ideas surrounding the major theories of Biology. The theories include evolution of natural selection, inheritance, cells, biological classification, bioenergetics, homeostasis, and ecosystems. The evolution of natural selection is the theory the theory that attempts to explain how and why species are able to adapt to their environments. “The reason that natural selection is important is that it’s the central idea, stemming from Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace, that explains design in nature. It is the one process that is responsible for the evolution of adaptations of organisms to their environment.” (Futuyma, 2004) Inheritance is the theory initiated by Gregor Mendel who studied how offspring carry traits of biological parents. Any organism that is composed of similar units of organization is a cell. Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann proposed the cell theory. Biological classification is the classification of living organisms. Bioenergetics is the theory that the same energy powers both living and inanimate objects. Homeostasis is the theory that in order to maintain equilibrium, organisms regulate their internal environment. The theory of ecosystems is that organisms are part of communities in the sense “that organisms do not exist alone” (text, p11). The idea of ecosystems is a young theory; it is widely discussed in scientific and even political forums today due to climate changes around the world. There are ongoing debates and studies on why climatic changes are taking pace and how these changes will affect the delicate ecosystems that inhabit the affected most severely affected areas such as the rain forests in South America.
American Institute of Biological Sciences (2004). Futuyma, D. What is natural selection, and how is it central to the theory of...